Ref: Tables Sussex 1: Finds totals by material type and by trench Table 2: Chronological breakdown of pottery assemblage by ware type Sussex 3: Ceramic building material totals by type and by trench Table 4: Animal bone condition and potential, Romano-British contexts Table 5: Assessment of the charred plant remains and charcoal Table 6: Sediment descriptions and sub-samples Alfoldean monolith 7 Table 7: Sediment descriptions and sub-samples Alfoldean monoliths Figures Figure 1: Site location and geophysical survey results Figure sussex Trenches 1 and 2, detail plans and selected sections and photos Figure 3: Trenches 3, 5 and 6, detail plans and sussex photos Figure 4: Trench 4, detail plan and selected section and photos Figure 5: A classic courtyard mansio.
The evaluation comprised an extensive geophysical survey alfoldean six trenches. The Site had been investigated in the early part of the 20th century by Samuel Winbolt, who exposed parts of the mansio building and attempted to define the associated strip settlement along Stane Street to the south.
The geophysical survey successfully plotted the outline of the bank and ditch enclosure surrounding the mansio complex, some of the mansio walls, and elements of the strip settlement including field systems, trackways, pits and areas of possible industrial activity. Ditches and trackways were largely aligned on Stane Street, and the focus of the settlement appeared to lie on the eastern side of the Roman alfoldean. Trenching augmented these results with more detail of some of the rooms within the mansio, their construction and later robbing, enabling the definition of this site as a classic courtyard mansio.
A trench was also excavated across the bank and ditches of the enclosure on the southern side. To the south of the enclosure one trench investigated a roughly curving geophysical anomaly which originally appeared to represent part of a roundhouse presumed to be prehistoric with central hearth, but which on excavation was seen to be part of a Romano-British enclosure ditch.
A second trench, towards the southern limit of the surveyed area, revealed two intercutting pits filled with domestic debris. No evidence for Iron Age activity on the site was recovered, and the mansio and surrounding enclosure appear to have been constructed some time in the later 1st century AD. The focus sussex activity on the Site was from the later 1st century into the 3rd century AD, with sporadic later activity, broadly confirming the results of previous fieldwork on the Site.
The end date of the mansio complex, however, remains unclear. Post-Roman agricultural practices were seen to have had a significant impact on the underlying archaeology, with plough scars and land drains recorded in several of the excavated trenches.
The field survey was undertaken by Henry Chapman, University of Birmingham. The excavation strategy was conducted by Neil Holbrook of Cotswold Archaeology. The finds were processed on-site by Naomi Hall. The archive was collated and all post-excavation assessment and analysis undertaken by Wessex Archaeology.
Michael J. Stevens and Sarah Wyles environmental. Environmental samples were processed by Hayley Clark. The illustrations were prepared by Linda Coleman. The post- excavation project was managed on behalf of Wessex Archaeology by Lorraine Mepham. Finally thanks are extended to the Pallinghurst Farm Partners for alfoldean access to the Site for geophysical survey and archaeological excavation. The Site derives its name from the modern bridge which crosses the Arun, originally known as Alfoldean Figure 1.
The underlying geology comprises alluvial silts overlying Arun 3rd and 4th gravel terraces, overlying clay and sandstone BGS WS and WS WS was also identified. Directly south of Alfoldean is the Roman posting station, enclosure and cemetery at Hardham. Pulborough and Bignor villas are located to the south-west, with a third villa site at Ewhurst to the north-west.
Pottery kilns are known at Itchingfield to the south-east, at Ewhurst to the north-west and the quarry at Broadfield to the east. The roads linked Sussex to the Romanised towns constructed in the native centres of the south-east and to the legionary bases and later towns to the north and west.
The Roman government needed it to control areas using the commanders of the regional forts, but it was also necessary for the administration of the Roman army, government officials and soldiers to travel between the various forts on government business.
The government therefore authorised the construction of praetoria, a series of roadside accommodation sites for high ranking officials to eat, sleep and procure fresh transport for their journey. These vici often preceded the construction of purpose-built accommodation for government officials, with bath-houses and stables and other such facilities within a defensive enclosure Black1.
Mansio has now become the preferred term for a roadside accommodation site Black1 and Mansio complexes are normally built in stone and generally include suites of rooms and an integral or adjacent bath-house. By reason of their function, they occur exclusively on or immediately adjacent to major roads. Mansiones occur in urban areas, including small towns and fort vici, as well as in rural contexts. In some places they may have formed the nucleus of a growing roadside settlement www.
A list of such accommodation was recorded in the Bordeaux Itinerary, a 4th century book describing the route alfoldean Bordeaux to Jerusalem for pilgrims, and describes accommodation as civitates, mansiones or mutationes. The collection possibly dates from some time before ADwith the British section of the Itinerary dating to the late 3rd or early 4th century AD. The distances recorded between accommodation were between 20 and 15 Roman miles approximately km or miles with only a handful less than 15 Roman alfoldean apart Black The distance from London to Ewell is 14 Roman miles.
At Ewell a settlement was identified adjacent to the road, potentially m long by m wide, sussex a number of structures have been excavated, one dated AD and another from the late 4th century AD, the whole settlement potentially surrounded by a defensive ditch.
From Ewell to Dorking is just less than 10 Roman miles, where 2nd century AD deposits and features have been identified adjacent to Stane Street. At Hardham a rectangular banked and ditched enclosure measuring c. A small excavation was carried out by S. E Winbolt in which revealed a rammed dark earth floor layer, a flint wall foundation, a number of cremations and large pits containing pottery wasters. There was evidence of late 1st to early 2nd century pottery production on site. This type of layout and the type of buildings within the enclosure is considered as typical, and the norm within a mansio staging post.
It is clear that mansio complexes continued to be built in the mid 4th century, with some sites such as Catterick being occupied in the late 4th century and possibly beyond, while it is clear that other sites were abandoned well before this time Black17; www. The major period of mansio building seems to have lasted between and years, from about the 2nd quarter of the 2nd century until the late 4th century AD, with the peak of building in the middle of the 2nd century www.
The courtyard mansiones are the most common recorded, with examples at Silchester, Chesterholm, Chelmsford, Wanborough, and Wall. In most known examples the courtyard is enclosed on all four sides; ranges of rooms commonly occupy three sides while the fourth is often formed sussex a sussex, ambulatory or similar. Larger rooms within the mansiones were frequently provided with hypocausts www. This is no other than a natural bed of drift, rare of its kind.
The alignment of the road was moved during this time, sussex the current A29 runs slightly to the west of the line of Stane Street and not directly on top of it. In the s sporadic digging was carried out by the then owner Mr. Briggs, but nothing was recorded of his discoveries if any Videotext Communications7; Winbolt This is likely to sussex been a tessellated pavement and not a mosaic floor.
Winbolt concentrated on the interior of the enclosure and published his results in the Sussex Archaeological Collections. Much of the reports are inconsistent and difficult to interpret and the plans difficult to follow and to compare with the text.
During his investigation into the bank and ditch of the enclosure an intravallum road was identified. Winbolt identified and named a number of structures within the enclosure but due to the lack of dating it is difficult to ascertain whether these structures were contemporaneous. It is possible that the tessellated surface uncovered by Winbolt was the same as that recorded by Belloc in To the north of this building a disturbed area of pink mortar floors was revealed, associated with a layer of large tiles, interpreted as possible evidence of a hypocaust system Luke and Wells He recorded a single building and suggested that the settlement could extend for at least half a mile.
In he recorded a series of upright piles and stakes within the River Arun and concluded that they derived from the original Roman bridge Videotext Communications4. Further work was carried out at the site inwhen the modern bridge was underpinned and a series of rubble spreads and Roman bricks and tiles were revealed as well as alfoldean number of wooden stakes.
It was concluded that the rubble derived alfoldean masonry pier bases NMR Report. TQ 13 SW 1. Luke records the site as a chain of deliberately planted settlements along Stane Street, extending from the enclosure and alfoldean an area of some 9 hectares.
During a watching brief was undertaken by John Mills of West Sussex County Council during the construction of a lay-by along the A29 and identified features associated with the Romano-British staging post. A brief summary is provided here. The project aimed to ascertain the location, date, character, condition and extent of the underlying archaeology, using geophysical survey and archaeological evaluation. Can the earliest and latest periods of activity be identified?
Their precise locations were targeted on geophysical anomalies. All machine trenches were excavated under alfoldean archaeological supervision and ceased alfoldean the identification of significant archaeological remains, or where natural geology was encountered first. When machine excavation had ceased all trenches were cleaned by hand and archaeological deposits investigated, as outlined in the agreed Project Design.
The excavated up-cast was scanned by metal detector, using detectorists recommended by the Finds Liaison Officer Sussex for the Portable Antiquities Scheme. All archaeological features and deposits were planned at a scale of with sections drawn at All principle strata and alfoldean were related to the Ordnance Survey datum.
The photographic record illustrated both the detail and general context of the archaeology revealed and the Site as a whole.
The code is ALF Detailed summaries of the excavated sequences are presented here in Appendix 1, while the results of the geophysical survey are incorporated here. While the stronger anomalies are associated with the enclosure the better defined responses reflect the settlement that extends southwards Sussex 1.
It is unclear whether the defences on the eastern side continue straight and utilise the River Arun as the northern defence, or turn to the west. On excavation it became clear that these linear features were the robbed out walls of the eastern range of the mansio building.
On this basis it was possible to identify in the magnetic data a number of small rooms and a linking corridor positioned on the eastern side of an open courtyard 6. The data also highlighted the inner western wall of the mansio fronting on to the courtyard. These interpretations were later confirmed by the excavation of Trenches 4 and 6. The strength of the results suggests that the features have a highly enhanced magnetic fill, perhaps indicating that a small scale industrial process was occurring in the vicinity or that the area had been subjected to some form of conflagration.
If not kilns, the features may represent large rubbish pits containing burnt material. It would seem that the course has changed by a few metres and that anomalies 12 indicate the position of the easternmost alfoldean ditch.
This strip settlement consists of paddocks, small fields and areas of houses and work shops connected by double ditched anomalies 13 and 14interpreted as trackways aligned north-south and east-west. The north-south aligned trackway running parallel to Stane Street was probably the back lane of properties fronting on to the Street, thus allowing access into the properties from the east.
The east-west aligned trackways one at the north and one at the south end of the north-south aligned trackway not only allowed access from Stane Street to the rear of the properties fronting the Street but also allowed access to the River Arun.
Stane Street shows clearly the engineering principles that the Romans used when building roads. A straight alfoldean alignment from London Bridge to Chichester would have required steep crossings of the North DownsGreensand Ridge and South Downs and so the road was designed to exploit a natural gap in the North Downs cut by the River Mole and to pass to the east of the high ground of Leith Hill before following flatter land in the River Arun valley to Pulborough.
The direct survey line was followed only for the northernmost Today the Roman road is easily traceable on modern maps. Much of the route is followed by the A3A24A29 and A, although most of the course through the modern county of Surrey has either been completely abandoned or is followed only by bridlepaths. Stane is simply an old spelling of "stone" Old Norse : steinn which was commonly used to differentiate paved Roman roads from muddy native trackways.
The name of the road is first recorded as Stanstret in both the Feet of Fines and the Assizes Rolls of Ockley. There is no surviving record of the road's original Roman name.
A number of first-century pottery fragments and coins have been found along the road, including Samian ware of Claudian date at Pulborough. This is consistent with the road being in use by 60 to 70 AD, possibly earlier. The steep gradients which would have been required if the road had followed a direct line would not have been practical for alfoldean traffic and so the Roman engineers designed the road to cross alfoldean North Downs by natural breach cut by the River Mole and to pass to the east of the high ground of Leith Hill.
The geology of the region was also considered and the road leaves the direct line at Ewell to move onto the well-drained chalk of the North Downs, in preference to remaining sussex the London Clay. The road is able to make a more gentle ascent of the South Downs escarpment at Bignor than was possible at Goodwood and the chosen route avoids the need for the road to cross the steep sided River Lavant valley at East Dean.
In order to accommodate and exploit the complex topology of the region, the road used four main straight sections sometimes referred to as limbs  connected by shorter linking alfoldean. Each limb could be surveyed separately using local vantage points. The major limbs were:. The limbs were not joined directly to each other, but are linked instead by shorter segments.
The Roman surveying technique is clearly demonstrated by the longest of the four limbs from South Holmwood to North Heath North of South Holmwood, the road turns by a further 7 degrees to the north to approach Dorking. The average width of the paved road is 7. This is wider than the average 6. Alfoldean overall width between the outer ditches, which can still be seen on aerial photographs taken over the South Downs, is Sections of intact road that have been excavated in several places show a variety of local materials, with the agger often being constructed of alternating layers of sand and gravel paved with large flint nodules, or sandstone, surfaced with smaller flint or sand and gravel.
The metalling was generally about 30 centimetres 0. There are two known posting stations or mansiones along Stane Street, where official sussex could change horses and travellers could rest. These are at Alfoldean and Hardham.
The station at Alfoldean has been excavated. The Alfoldean site is just south of the River Arun and partly covered by the A29 road.
It was excavated by the Channel 4 archaeological television programme Time Teamrevealing the remains of a two-storey mansio built around a courtyard and also many other buildings. The site was enclosed by massive ramparts and ditches four metres wide and as deep which were dated by pottery finds to around 90 AD.
The ditches were filled in by the mid-third century. The team's view was that the site had been an administrative and taxation centre for the Wealden iron industry. Two further stations at Merton Priory and Dorking have been postulated as being at suitable intervals, though the sites would now be hidden under modern development. It then crosses the River Wandle at the site of what later became Merton Prioryand is then closely followed by the A24 from Morden to Ewell.
This is the only section of the road that is on the true line from London Bridge to the east gate of Chichester. At Ewell it bears to the left slightly, avoiding wet difficult alluvial soils by moving onto the chalkto cross the North Downs near Langley Vale. The section from Thirty Acres Barn, Ashtead alfoldean Mickleham Downs is well preserved and is listed as a scheduled monument.
South of Dorking, near South HolmwoodStane Street takes a line sighted from London Bridge to Pulborough with most of this section still in use as the modern A29 which follows the line very closely through Billingshurst as far sussex Pulborough.
This line to the east of the middle reaches of the River Arun is mostly free of steep gradients, although the modern road does avoid the hill at Rowhook. Just to the south of the steep descent from Rowhook through Roman Woods, where the road bridged the River Arun, some of the timber piles on which the bridge was built are still present in the river bed.
At Hardham, south west of Pulborough, there was a junction with the Greensand Way Roman road to Lewes and a posting station near the junction.
From alfoldean the alignment makes a beeline for Chichester, and passes the notable Roman villa at Bignorbefore making a sussex detour from the line where it climbs the escarpment of the South Downsclimbing sussex spur of chalk at Bignortail Wood and continuing as a man made terrace across the steep hillside.
This terrace is well preserved on the downhill side of the top of the modern track which leads to the hilltop car park at Bignor Hill. Up on the open sussex of the downs the line of the road can be followed very well on foot and is free of modern roads and paths. Walking south from Bignor Hill one soon comes to open sheep-grazed pasture at Gumber farm where the scale of the agger of the road can be clearly seen.
The spire of Chichester cathedral can be seen above the distant trees, slightly to the right of the road line as the road heads for Chichester's east gate. Further on at Eartham Woods where the Monarch's Way long-distance path follows the route, the flint surface of the well-preserved road is exposed, the trees are mostly cut back to the boundary ditches, and the road seems little different from the time when the Legions left Britain.
From Rowhook a road went northwest to Farley Heath at the foot of alfoldean North Downs where it passes through a Roman temple sussex. To the north of Pulborough another road branched off in a southeasterly direction, crossing the Greensand Way at Wiggonholt. It is unclear whether it continued beyond this towards Storrington. At Westhampnettnear the Alfoldean works, the Roman coastal road, which became the older A27 road, branches from Stane Street at the mini-roundabout.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Stane Street Colchester. Roman Ways in the Weald. London: Phoenix House. Archived from the original on 16 October Retrieved 4 October Roman Roads of Sussex.
Middleton Press. With a Spade on Stane Street. London: Methuen. Surrey Archaeological Collections. Surrey Archaeological Sussex.
The Stane Street: A monograph. Spurbooks Ltd. Survey of London. George the Martyr Southwark and St. Mary Newington. London County Council. Retrieved 29 November — via British History Online.
The Times sussex Romans in Sussex. Sussex Archaeological Society. Archived from the original on 21 February Retrieved 26 December Namespaces Article Talk.
Alfoldean specimens have been presented to the Sussex Arch. The excavation was filled in within a few days but when the site was dug by S. Winbolt in a section of the pavement was re-set on the lawn at 'Hill', where it remained until when it was demolished.
The larger fragments have since been deposited at the Horsham Museum. The N side, upon the banks of the River Arun, has probably been completely eroded away. Where best preserved on the W side, the rampart is Resurveyed at It has been donated to Horsham Museum. HE Archives. HE Prints. Historic England. Heritage Explorer. Heritage Gateway. Images of England. National Heritage List for England. EH Visitor Information. Related Monuments.
You must be a registered user to use the IMDb rating plugin. Photos Add Image Add an image Do you have any images for this title? Edit Cast Episode credited cast: Tony Robinson Himself - Presenter Phil Harding Himself Helen Geake Herself Neil Holbrook Himself - Site Director Stewart Ainsworth Himself John Gater Himself - Geophysics Fiona Robertson Herself - Geophysics Claire Stephens Herself - Geophysics Henry Chapman Himself Rest of cast listed alphabetically: Victor Ambrus Himself Cliff Barnes Himself - Farrier Mark Corney Himself - Roman Specialist Raksha Dave Herself Kerry Ely Himself Brigid Gallagher Edit Storyline In s Roman evidence was dug by local school master.
Add the first question. The ditch runs parallel to Stane Street, and therefore may represent the back boundary of a property which fronted onto the road, part of the strip settlement which grew up along Stane Street following the mansio establishment.
This was possibly the earliest. The existing structure had been completely dismantled with all useable material being taken away to be recycled. From the robber trenches identified it was clear that at least five individual rooms had been revealed, extending to the west from what was interpreted as the exterior wall.
This shallow scoop was filled with compact mix of CBM, ferruginous sandstone and greensand within clay silt. This fairly narrow deposit was aligned with the possible back wall of the mansio building, and has been interpreted as a track or pathway extending around the mansio building itself.
It may have been the feature that was exposed by Winbolt and interpreted as an intravallum road. Eight such trenches were identified, all probably dug at the same time. It seems that the robbing took place by the removal of the wall foundation at a particular point, then the foundation material was systematically removed from within the construction cut, resulting in the latter being left undamaged. The robber trenches therefore are essentially the same size, shape and depth as the original construction cuts.
Robbed Wall RW numbers were assigned during post-excavation to aid the description and interpretation of the rooms and the structure as a whole.
The eight robber cuts can be summarised as follows: Cut No. Five rooms were identified within Trench 4, four of which Rooms 2- 5 were interpreted as possible individual sleeping quarters or perhaps rooms. The five rooms within Trench 4 can be summarised as follows:. Room Interpretation Walls Internal deposits No.
RW1 separated Room 1 from an area of natural geology interpreted as a central courtyard to the mansio building, while RW2 and 4 separated Room 1 from the smaller sleeping areas. The exposed area of Room 1 appears to be the south-east corner, the corridor extending to north-west and north-east.
The room was 5. Room 3 has been interpreted as a single room of four walls, but it is possible that RW7 to the north or RW6 to the south were dividing walls within a larger suite comprising a number of rooms.
The dimensions of the external walls of the structure were the same as the internal walls, suggesting that all the walls were load bearing. This wing of the mansio appears to be a single room wide with the corridor positioned on the inside overlooking the central courtyard.
These were two large inter-cutting pits, and , which were surface cleaned but not excavated. The earliest pit , filled with , was not fully revealed, though was probably sub-circular in plan. Cutting the fill of was a second pit , also sub-circular in plan, and filled with Pottery from pit included three sherds of samian, and a corroded coin of Nero AD came from the ploughsoil.
Under the current ploughsoil a large cut feature was identified, aligned north-east — south-west and cutting through the natural geology The natural geology was highly compacted at this point and was interpreted as having been utilised as an internal courtyard surface within the mansio complex, equivalent to deposit identified within Trench 4.
The sondage revealed that cut through deposit , an organic-rich sandy loam containing abundant fragments of charcoal and CBM. This was interpreted as a possible occupation deposit within the western wing of the mansio, although the abundant charcoal perhaps implies that it was deposited as a result of fire within the structure prior to its demolition.
Feature was interpreted as a robber cut for the removal of an external mansio wall. The assemblage is largely Romano-British in date, with a small amount of earlier prehistoric and later medieval and post-medieval material.
Subsequent to quantification, all finds have been at least visually scanned in order to gain an overall idea of the range of types present, their condition, and their potential date range. Spot dates have been recorded for selected material types as appropriate pottery, ceramic building material. All finds data are currently held on an Access database. Condition overall is poor, with sherds showing high levels of abrasion, and loss of surface detail; samian and other colour coated wares have suffered particularly badly and surface slips are very worn.
Pottery totals by ware type are given in Table 2. Romano-British 4. Samian is the most common type; sherds have not been assigned to specific production centres, although both South Gaulish and Central Gaulish products are certainly present, and possibly also East Gaulish. Nearly all the samian is badly abraded, and a few pieces are burnt; poor condition combined with small fragment size means that few forms could be identified. The amphora sherds from just two contexts in trench 3 consist entirely of Spanish Dressel 20 type, with a date range of 1st to 3rd centuries AD.
Other Continental finewares make up the rest of the imports, including Cologne colour coated ware 1st to mid 3rd century AD and Central Gaulish black-slipped ware mid 2nd to early 3rd century AD. Mortaria include at least one possible New Forest parchment ware ditch , but others are of uncertain source, either British or imported continental types. Most of these vessel forms can be accommodated within a later 1st or 2nd century AD date range, and parallels can be seen, for example, at Wiggonholt, including an unusual, sharply carinated jar or beaker, with slightly overhanging carination and rouletting above, dated to the later 1st century AD Evans , fig.
Some of the less distinctive jar forms could extend the date range into the 3rd century, but the relative scarcity of identifiable 4th century forms confined to three dropped flange bowls in ditch suggests that by this time any activity on the site was sporadic.
The whitewares could include some products of the Adur Valley kilns — these were produced, for example, at Wiggonholt in the early 2nd century AD Evans — but could also include imports, for example a flagon with pulley-wheel rim in a very fine fabric from deposit overlying the hearth in Trench 3.
Medieval 4. All are in fine, glazed sandy ware in the West Sussex tradition, and could all derive from the same vessel, probably a jug of 13th or 14th century date. The assemblage has been quantified by type, and totals by trench are presented in Table 3.
The CBM occurred mainly in trenches 1, 2 and 4, with little coming from trenches 3 and 5, and none from trench 6. It is possible that at least some of the ceramic building material used on the site was made locally, perhaps even on the site itself although no evidence for this was found.
Other roof tiles may be included within the miscellaneous flat fragments, and some may have been reused as ceramic tesserae. Box flue tiles 4. Box flue tiles tubuli were designed to carry heat from the underfloor hypocaust system behind the walls around a room; they would have been mortared into place in pipe-like arrangements, usually vertical.
The tubuli from Alfoldean are fragmentary, but certainly included examples of rectangular cross-section, with the wider faces scored or combed as keying for plaster and the narrower faces left plain. Most of the tubuli came from Trenches 1 and 4, with a few fragments in Trenches 2 and 3. Bricks 4. There are no complete examples here, so their function is uncertain, but they could be either bessalis or pedalis type. The main function of the bessalis was to form pillars pilae to support the floor above the hypocaust while the larger pedalis was used as capping or base brick for pilae.
Tegula Mammata Type A 4. These bricks carry deliberately attached lumps of clay which project from one surface. One of the earliest references to the occurrence of this brick type in Britain was in fact at Alfoldean Bridge Winbolt , Tesserae 4.
They are all of a fairly uniform size and colour. Most appear to have been made from a similar fabric to the tegulae and flat tile found on the site. Since most of them came from the robber cuts within Trench 4 their original location is unknown, although they may have been used in a tessellated pavement along the corridor Room 1. Miscellaneous building material 4.
None of these materials occurred in any great quantity; the opus signinum and wall plaster was confined to Trench 1. A piece of roofing slate from Trench 1 topsoil is post-medieval. Two are distorted and could be either burnt vessel fragments or waste pieces. Only one can be assigned to a specific form — the base of a prismatic bottle, with moulded decoration ditch These bottles were most common during the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. Associated finds indicate a Romano-British date, but the quantity is insufficient to postulate on-site metalworking at this period.
Two of the coins date to the 1st century AD. Object 15 Trench 5 topsoil is an as of the emperor Nero, whilst Object 6 Trench 6 topsoil is a copy of a silver denarius of the Emperor Titus. It is not clear, without analysis of the metal content, whether the silver denarius is a contemporary copy or a modern electrotype.
The second is a follis of Constantine I, dated AD The remaining Roman coins, Objects 7 and 8 ditch and Trench 3 topsoil respectively , are both badly corroded. Both can be dated on the basis of their size alone to the 3rd or 4th centuries AD.
Copper alloy objects comprise two sheet fragments, a small strip fragment with attached iron rivet all from Trench 1 topsoil , and a tiny ring diameter 10mm from ditch None of these objects are datable.
Ironwork consists largely of nails and other probable structural items, while the lead is composed entirely of waste fragments. The head and tip are missing. As almost none of it could be identified, the two categories were not separated. All bones derive from mammals. No bones from birds, fish or amphibians were present. Fifty-eight come from Romano-British contexts, seven from modern contexts and two from undated contexts.
Only Romano-British contexts are considered here. Condition and preservation 4. Almost all of the material was not identifiable to species Table 4. All the bones from modern contexts were in poor condition. Gnawing was rare, seen on only one bone medium sized mammal , and this indicates that scavenger destruction was not a significant biasing factor. Animal husbandry 4. Consumption and deposition 4.
The overall poor condition of the material can account for the little evidence of butchery found. Only when bone actually comes into contact with fire it changes its colour. This normally does not happen during cooking, and it is possible that bone refuse was thrown into a hearth. Building materials made up the bulk of the assemblage confirming the presence of substantial structures on the site , and other items of material culture were scarce.
Any publication text prepared could include data gathered as part of this assessment stage. These were taken through ditch deposits, and an adjacent bank deposit sealing a buried land surface, to help to clarify the sedimentary history. Flots were scanned and the presence of charred remains and charcoals recorded Table 5.
Preliminary identifications of dominant or important taxa are noted below, following the nomenclature of Stace There were moderate numbers of roots and occasional modern seeds within most of the samples, which may be indicative of stratigraphic movement, reworking or the degree of contamination by later intrusive elements. Such elements were notably higher in Trench 3 from the ditch deposits and the post-holes.
The charred material was generally poorly preserved, except for that from the buried soil. Grains of probable spelt wheat Triticum spelta were recovered from the ditches and buried soil horizon in Trench 2 and a single very well preserved glume base was also recovered from the soil horizon A single fragment of hazelnut shell came from ditch The remaining features in Trench 1 and Trench 3 contained almost no remains, bar a single spelt wheat grain from ditch Given the nature of the settlement it is possible that grain was brought in either fully processed or perhaps even after milling, brewing or such preparation that leaves little evidence in the way of charred cereal grain or chaff.
It is also possible that such activities may have been conducted in other parts of the settlement, away from the excavated areas. In general the samples were very rich in wood charcoal in comparison to many sites of this date. Such burning may be related to industrial activities, although no substantial evidence was seen in the excavations for such activities.
Some of the samples contained occasional charred fragments of roundwood e. A possible dump of charcoal in the primary fill of ditch may indicate some activity locally.
The flot 0. Ditch 5. The alluvium natural was a yellowish-brown to brown, slightly sticky, silty clay and is probably associated with Holocene overbank flooding of the River Arun. The primary ditch fill was derived from these fine-grained sediments washed into the ditch soon after it was cut. It contained substantial quantities of wood charcoal.
Secondary fills of brown, iron-mottled, clay silt and dark brown slightly organic sandy silt loam base of indicate in-wash of alluvial sediments perhaps followed by some in-wash from an earlier soil. Both displayed a blocky structure, indicating some local soil development B horizon of a later soil profile. The upper portion of was a dark brown, friable, crumbly, highly organic silt loam with abundant charcoal fragments and represents an old land surface A horizon , with the structure indicating an extended period of stasis, probably on a decadal scale.
The dark yellowish brown silt loam of context contained abundant CBM with a matrix, seemingly forming the tertiary ditch fill, and was overlain by the modern soil profile. Bank and buried soil 5. This sampled the dumped clay bank and the deposits which it sealed, and natural The basal alluvial silty clay at 0. Visually this was no different to in the upper fills of ditch The overlying dump of alluvial clay natural was of yellowish brown, faintly iron-stained clay with occasional CBM inclusions, into which the modern soil profile and ploughsoil had developed.
No further work is proposed, but the information presented in this assessment should be used in any publication.
Such potential would depend on the identification of activities associated with the high amounts of charcoal seen within some features.
If such activities were identified it may be possible to examine such selection of fuel for use in specific types of activities. The concentration of wood charcoal in the primary fill of ditch probably represents a defined dump of waste, and may therefore suitable for radiocarbon dating if required. Soils and Sediments 5. There is no need, therefore, to undertake soil micromorphological analysis on the kubiena samples collected in order to identify the soil horizons, since they have been described from the monoliths.
If no further work is required on the sequence following detailed examination of the finds, then the monoliths which are not archivally stable will be discarded. Pollen 5. These could be assessed to indicate preservation of pollen and the potential to investigate the vegetation and landscape of the land surface prior to the Romano-British activity. Radiocarbon 5. This project provided the opportunity. It was clear from four of the six trenches that this had had a significant adverse effect on the remains of the Romano-British site and the structures within it.
Even where the topsoil and subsoil was at its deepest across the site, as it was in this area, as a result of hill wash down the gentle slope towards the River Arun, modern agricultural techniques were impacting upon the buried archaeology. Trench 5 revealed three land drains but no evidence of plough scarring despite the relatively shallow depth of the topsoil and subsoil Figure 3. The topsoil was similarly quite shallow in Trenches 4 and 6, but no evidence of plough scarring or land drains was visible.
They do align with the current modern ploughing trend, and have therefore been interpreted as modern, but they could be earlier. Following the abandonment of the staging post and mansio any layout of fields is likely to have been aligned on the most visible feature in the landscape, namely Stane Street.
It is, therefore, likely that all post-Roman ploughing activity would have followed this alignment. The staging post had been well recorded, with earlier earthwork surveys identifying the limits of the enclosure, and this was confirmed by the geophysical survey which was able to record the limits of the enclosure on both sides of the A The enclosure extended to a distance of 80m east from the A29 and m from the River.
On the western side of the A29 the enclosure was recorded for some m by 30m. It appears that the northern limit of the enclosure would have been the River Arun, thus allowing easy access to and control over the river. Luke suggested a total area of some 9 hectares, implying occupation covering roughly 50m either side of the road Luke and Wells , The Time Team project neither confirmed nor contradicted this.
Trench 5, the southernmost trench, was only m from the edge of the enclosure, and revealed two large, intercutting pits filled with domestic waste, in other words, features likely to be associated with settlement.
Watch now. Title: Sussex, West Sussex 09 Apr sussex In s Roman evidence was dug by local school sussex. The team return to the field to investigate further, but on day two the rain came.
New trenches are dug as previous trenches alfoldean washed out. Only geophysical survey like the rain sussex it improves their signal. The team are finding a Roman mansio, either alfoldean of Stane Street A Written by Mildred.
Explore popular alfoldean recently alfoldean TV series available to stream now with Prime Video. Start sussex free trial.
Sign In. Keep track of everything you watch; tell your friends. Full Cast sussex Crew. Release Dates. Official Sites. Company Credits. Technical Specs. Plot Sussex. Plot Keywords. Parents Guide. Sussex Sites. User Reviews. User Ratings. External Reviews. Metacritic Reviews. Photo Gallery. Trailers sussex Videos. Crazy Credits. Alternate Versions. Time Team — Rate This. Season 13 Episode All Episodes The Time Team investigates a alfoldean in Alfoldean, West Sussex which is a cross between a motorway service center and medieval inn.
Director: Michael Douglas. Alfoldean to Watchlist. Use the HTML below. You must be a registered user to use the IMDb rating plugin. Photos Add Image Add an image Do you have any images for this title? Edit Cast Episode credited cast: Tony Robinson Himself - Presenter Phil Harding Himself Helen Geake Herself Neil Holbrook Himself - Site Director Stewart Ainsworth Himself John Gater Himself - Geophysics Fiona Robertson Herself - Geophysics Claire Stephens Herself - Geophysics Henry Chapman Alfoldean Rest of cast listed alphabetically: Victor Ambrus Himself Cliff Barnes Alfoldean - Farrier Mark Alfoldean Himself sussex Roman Specialist Raksha Dave Herself Kerry Alfoldean Himself Brigid Gallagher Edit Storyline In s Roman evidence was dug by local school master.
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The site of the Roman settlement at Alfodean. The site survives as an earthwork rectilinear enclosure positioned across the Roman Road of Stane Street, now. Evaluation Trial Trenching · Specialist Services · Post-excavation Analysis & Reporting. Sectors. Public Archaeology · Alfoldean, Slinfold, West Sussex by.
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