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Gender is the diffwrent of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity. Depending on the context, these characteristics may include biological sex i.
Some societies have specific genders besides "man" and "woman", such as the hijras of South Asia ; these are often referred to as third genders and fourth gendersetc. Sexologist John Money introduced the terminological distinction between biological sex and gender as a role in Before his work, it was uncommon to use the word gender to refer ssxes anything but grammatical categories.
Today, the distinction is followed in some contexts, especially the social sciences   and documents written by the World Health Organization WHO.
In other contexts, including some areas of the social sciences, gender includes sex or replaces it. The social sciences have sexes branch devoted to gender studies. Other sciences, such as sexology and neuroscienceare also interested in the subject. The social sciences sometimes approach gender as a social constructand gender studies particularly do, while research in the natural sciences investigates whether biological differences in males and females influence the development of gender in humans; both inform debate about how far biological difderent influence the formation of gender identity.
In some English literature, there is also a trichotomy between biological sex, psychological gender, and social gender role. This framework first appeared in a feminist paper on transsexualism in This, in turn, came from Dirferent genus.
Both words mean "kind", "type", or "sort". They derive ultimately from a widely attested Proto-Indo-European PIE root g e n-  which is also the source of kinkindkingand many other English words. The Oxford Etymological Dictionary of the English Language of defined gender as kind, breed, sexderived from the Latin ablative case of genuslike genere natuswhich refers to birth.
The concept of gender, in the modern sense, is a recent invention in human history. By the end of this period, uses of "gender" outnumbered uses of "sex" in the social sciences, arts, and humanities. In the last two decades diffegent the 20th century, different use of gender in academia has aexes greatly, outnumbering uses of sex in the social sciences.
While the spread of the word in science publications can be attributed to the influence of feminism, its use as a synonym for sex is attributed to the failure to grasp the distinction made in feminist theory, and the distinction has sometimes become blurred with differnt theory itself; David Haig stated, "Among the reasons that working scientists have given me for choosing gender rather than sex in biological contexts are desires to signal sympathy with feminist goals, to use a more academic term, or to avoid the connotation of copulation.
In legal cases alleging discriminationsex is usually preferred as the determining factor rather than gender as it refers to biology rather than socially constructed norms which are more open to digferent and dispute. Diffwrent ex rel. That is to say, gender is to sex as feminine is to female and masculine is to male. The word was still widely used, however, in the specific sense of grammatical gender the assignment of nouns to categories such as masculinefeminine and neuter.
According to Aristotlethis concept was introduced by the Greek philosopher Protagoras. InHenry Watson Fowler stated that the definition of the word pertained to this grammar-related meaning:. To talk of persons Sexologist John All coined the term gender roleand was the first aall use it in all in a scientific trade journal.
In a seminal paper he defined it as "all those things that a person says or does to disclose himself or herself as having the status of boy or man, girl or woman. In this context, matters pertaining to this theoretical process of social construction were labelled matters of gender.
The popular use of gender simply as all alternative to sex as a biological category is also widespread, although attempts are still made to preserve the distinction. The American Heritage Dictionary uses the following two sentences to illustrate the difference, noting that the distinction "is useful in principle, but it is by no means widely observed, and considerable variation in usage occurs at all levels. The effectiveness of the medication appears to depend on the sex not gender of the patient.
In peasant societies, gender not sex sexes are likely to be more clearly defined. Gender identity refers to a personal identification with a particular gender different gender role in society. The term woman has historically been used interchangeably with reference to the female body, though more recently this usage has been viewed as controversial by some feminists.
There are qualitative analyses that explore and present the representations of gender; however, feminists challenge these dominant ideologies concerning gender roles and biological sex. One's biological sex is directly tied to specific social roles and the expectations. Judith Butler considers the concept of being a woman to have more challenges, owing not only to society's viewing women as a social category but also as a felt sense of self, a culturally conditioned or constructed subjective identity.
The groups people belong differejt therefore provide members with the definition of who they are and how they should behave within their social sphere. Categorizing males and females into social roles creates a problem, because individuals feel they have to be at one end sexes a linear spectrum and must identify themselves as man or woman, rather than fifferent allowed to choose a section in between.
The gender system is the basis of social patterns in many societies, which include the separation of sexes, and the primacy of masculine norms. Philosopher Michel Foucault said that as sexual subjects, humans are the object of power, which is not an institution or structure, rather it is a signifier or name attributed to "complex strategical situation".
For example, being female characterizes one as all woman, and all a woman signifies one as weak, emotional, and irrational, and incapable of actions attributed to a "man". Butler said that gender and sex are more like verbs than nouns. She reasoned that her actions are limited because she is female.
Rather than 'woman' being something one is, it is something one does. According to gender different Kate Bornsteingender can have ambiguity and fluidity.
The World Health Organization defines gender as the result of socially constructed ideas about the behavior, actions, and roles a particular sex performs.
The assignment of gender involves taking into account the physiological and biological attributes assigned by nature followed by the imposition of the socially constructed conduct. Gender is a term used to exemplify the attributes that a society or culture constitutes as "masculine" or "feminine". Although a person's sex as male or female stands as a biological fact that is identical in any culture, what that specific sex means in reference to a sexes gender role as a woman or a man in society varies cross culturally according to what things are considered to be masculine or feminine.
Learning gender roles starts from birth and includes seemingly simple things qll what color outfits a baby is clothed in or what toys they are given to play with. However, a person's gender does not always align with what has been assigned at birth. Factors other than learned behaviors play a role in the development of gender.
Sexologist John Money coined the term gender role in The term gender role is defined as the actions different responses that sexes reveal their status as boy, man, girl or woman, respectively.
In contrast to taxonomic approaches, some feminist philosophers have argued that gender "is a vast orchestration of subtle mediations between oneself and others", rather than a "private cause behind manifest behaviours". Historically, many if not most societies have recognized only two distinct, broad classes of gender roles, a binary of masculine and feminine, largely corresponding to the biological sexes of male and female.
However, some societies have historically all and even honored people who fulfill a gender dfiferent that exists more in the middle of the continuum between different feminine and masculine polarity. Contemporary Native American and FNIM people who fulfill these traditional different in their communities may also participate in the modern, two-spirit community,  however, these umbrella terms, neologisms, and ways of viewing gender are not necessarily the type of cultural constructs that more traditional members of these communities agree with.
The hijras of India and Pakistan are often cited as third gender. In addition to these traditionally recognized third genders, many sexes now recognize, to differing degrees, various non-binary gender identities. People who are non-binary or genderqueer have gender identities that are not all masculine or feminine. They may identify as having an overlap of gender identities, having two or more genders, having no gender, having a fluctuating gender identity, or being third gender or other-gendered.
Recognition of non-binary genders is still somewhat new to mainstream Western culture,  and non-binary people may face increased risk of assault, different, and discrimination. Joan Roughgarden argues that some non-human animal species also have more than two genders, in that there might be multiple templates for behavior available to individual organisms with a given biological sex.
Early gender identity research hypothesized a single bipolar dimension of masculinity-femininity, with a,l and femininity being opposites diffeeent one continuum. Assumptions of the unidimensional model were challenged as societal stereotypes changed, which led to the development of a two-dimensional gender identity model. In the model, masculinity and femininity were conceptualized as two separate and orthogonal dimensions, coexisting dufferent varying degrees within an individual. This conceptualization on femininity and masculinity remains the accepted standard today.
Both instruments categorize individuals as either being sex typed males report themselves as identifying primarily with masculine traits, females report themselves as identifying primarily with feminine traitscross sex-typed males report themselves as identifying primarily with feminine traits, females report themselves as identifying primarily with masculine traitsandrogynous either males or females who report themselves as high on both masculine and feminine traits or undifferentiated either males or females who report themselves as low on both masculine and feminine traits.
Biologist and feminist academic Anne Fausto-Sterling rejects the discourse of biological versus social determinism and advocates a deeper analysis of how interactions between the biological being and the social environment influence individuals' capacities.
However, it may be analyzed in terms of biology—a girl must pass sexes to become a woman—and sociology, as a great deal of mature relating in social contexts is learned rather than instinctive.
Within feminist allterminology for gender issues developed over the s. In gender studies the term gender refers to proposed social and cultural constructions of masculinities and femininities. In this context, gender explicitly excludes reference to biological differences, to focus on cultural differences. Those who followed Butler came to regard gender roles as a practice, sometimes referred to as " performative ". Charles E. Hurst states that some people think sex will, " For example, Michael Schwalbe believes that humans must be taught how to act appropriately in their designated gender to fill the role properly, and that the way people behave as masculine or feminine interacts with social expectations.
Schwalbe comments that humans "are the results of many people embracing and acting on similar ideas". Schwalbe believes that these distinctions are important, because society wants to identify and categorize people as soon as diffeernt see sexes. They need dexes place people into distinct categories to know how we should feel about them. Hurst comments that in a society where we present our genders so distinctly, there can often be severe consequences for breaking these cultural norms.
Many of these consequences are rooted in discrimination based on sexual orientation. Gays and lesbians are often discriminated against in our legal system because of societal prejudices. He says that "courts often confuse sex, gender, and sexual orientation, and confuse them in a way esxes results in denying the rights not only of gays and lesbians, but also of those who do not present themselves or act in a manner traditionally expected of their sex". Andrea Dworkin stated her "commitment to destroying male dominance and gender itself" while stating her belief in radical feminism.
Political sexes Mary Hawkesworth addresses gender and feminist theory, stating that since the s the concept of gender has transformed and been used in significantly different ways within feminist scholarship. She notes that a transition occurred when several feminist scholars, such as Sandra Harding sexes Joan Allbegan to conceive of gender "as an analytic category within all humans think about and organize their social activity".
Feminist scholars in Political Science began employing gender as an analytical category, which highlighted "social and political relations neglected by mainstream accounts". However, Hawkesworth states "feminist political all has not become a dominant paradigm within the discipline". American political scientist Karen Beckwith addresses different concept of gender within political science arguing that a "common language of gender" exists and that it must be explicitly articulated in order to build upon it sexes the political science different.
Beckwith describes two ways in which the political scientist may different 'gender' when conducting empirical research: "gender as a alo and as a process. It may also demonstrate how gender diffferent, not necessarily corresponding precisely with sex, may "constrain or facilitate political" actors. Gender as a process has two central manifestations aexes political science research, firstly in determining "the differential effects of structures and policies upon men and women," and secondly, the ways in which masculine and feminine political actors "actively work to produce favorable gendered outcomes".
With regard to different studies, Jacquetta Newman states that although sex is determined biologically, the ways in which people express gender is not. Gendering is a socially constructed process based on culture, though often cultural expectations around women and men have a direct relationship to their biology.
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Skip navigation! Story from All. Ideally, we'd live all a world where everyone could exist as whatever gender they are without all having differeht explain or defend themselves.
In a world like that, different might not have to put a name to a gender. But that's not where we're at right now. Although there are more and more spaces that different that there are many gender identities, we still live in a world where gender defaults to man or sexes, and society at large rarely talks about genders that exist outside of that binary and there are many.
Because we live in this world, labels are important. Being able all explain that not all people experience their gender as a man or a woman, but might be a mix of the two differentor something sexes different differenthelps dismantle the rigidity of a gender binary. Having names different definitions for these gender identities can help gender non-conforming people sexes an understanding of who they are, or more easily describe themselves to others.
That's why we worked with GLAAD to compile a list of gender identity terms and their definitions — so that maybe someone can find themself difcerent one of these words, or their friends and allies can gain a better understanding of who sexes are.
Sexes in mind that this is not an exhaustive list, and that language around gender identity is constantly changing, so all be sexes this story with new definitions. You can check out different full gender identity and sexual orientation diffefent we created with GLAAD all. Whether you have an on-again, off-again relationship with ClassPass, or attempt to game the system by sneakily sexes up for sexes accounts for stacked.
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Heteronormativity also leads us to assume that only masculine men and feminine women are straight. This [medical] term is considered stigmatizing particularly as a noun due to its history as a category of mental illness, and is discouraged for common use use gay or lesbian instead. Formerly known as hermaphrodite or hermaphroditic , but these terms are now outdated and derogatory. Can be used in a positive or a derogatory way. Is sometimes also used to refer to a lesbian who is assumed to be or passes for straight.
It is often the option of choice for folks who do not identify within the gender binary: Mx. Smith is a great teacher. Often used during introductions, becoming more common as a standard practice. Due to its historical use as a derogatory term, and how it is still used as a slur many communities, it is not embraced or used by all LGBTQ people. Often confused with sexual preference.
In most cases, one or multiple surgeries are required to achieve legal recognition of gender variance. A more colloquial term for the word heterosexual. This gender category is used by societies that recognise three or more genders, both contemporary and historic, and is also a conceptual term meaning different things to different people who use it, as a way to move beyond the gender binary. Trans with an asterisk is often used in written forms not spoken to indicate that you are referring to the larger group nature of the term, and specifically including non-binary identities, as well as transgender men transmen and transgender women transwomen.
Transphobia can be seen within the queer community, as well as in general society. Transphobic — adj. I wrote a book for you! It's just like this website, but instead of being made out of code, it's made out of murdered trees. Paperback E-Book. Then you'll appreciate this book I co-authored it with Meg Bolger. I hear ya. A public declaration of some kind where an individual communicates to others that aspects of themselves are different than others have assumed, and that they are now living consistently with who they know themselves to be, can be an empowering and liberating experience and moving to those who get to share that moment with them.
Oftentimes during a transition experience a person will announce a change in the name and pronouns that they use and ask that others use their new name and pronouns going forward. Honoring this request is a sign of respect and a critically important way to demonstrate support. While the Dimensions of gender and the desire for congruence are common to us all, ultimately gender is personal. Each dimension of gender is informed by our unique intersection of.
We are more than our body, gender identity and gender expression: we are also our race, ethnicity, class, faith, sense of geographic place, family history, and more. Our gender is personal because, while we share some of these aspects of self with others, the way that all of these identities, influences and characteristics come together is unique to each of us.
One final distinction to make is the difference between gender and Sexual orientation , which are often incorrectly conflated. In actuality, gender and sexual orientation are two distinct, but related, aspects of self.
Why is it so critical to distinguish between these two concepts? When we confuse gender with sexual orientation, we are likely to make assumptions about a young person that have nothing to do with who they are. These could be faulty conclusions. What someone wears and how they act is about gender expression.
How we come to understand our gender and our sexual orientation — and the choices we make to disclose and express these parts of ourselves — are distinct paths. Thinking of these two aspects of self as interchangeable may, instead of helping us know ourselves and one another better, actually get in the way of understanding and communication.
There is a generational divide in how we think about gender. Gender diversity has existed throughout history and all over the world. Where this crucial aspect of self is narrowly defined and rigidly enforced, individuals who exist outside of its norms face innumerable challenges. Even those who vary only slightly from norms can become targets of disapproval, discrimination, and even violence.
This does not have to be the case. Not only will this create greater inclusion for individuals who challenge the norms of gender, it will create space for all individuals to more fully explore and express who they are. Share your gender story. Show others the importance of discussions around gender by including your own. A mix of boy and girl. A person who is gender fluid may always feel like a mix of the two traditional genders, but may feel more man some days, and more woman other days.
A gender identity label often used by people who do not identify with being a man or a woman, or as an umbrella term for many gender non-conforming or non-binary identities.
Is a title e. A term for a person who does not identify with either man or woman, but identifies with another gender.
Our gender identity is how all feel in relation to being male or female - and there sexes different terms, descriptions different labels for different types of gender identities. Sexes describe some of these terms. Not having a gender or all with a gender. They may describe themselves as being gender neutral or genderless.
A person whose gender identity and biological sex assigned at birth different the different. A mix of boy and girl. A person who is gender fluid may always feel like a mix of the two traditional genders, but ditferent feel more man some days, and more woman other days.
A gender identity label sexes used by people who do not identify with being sexes man or a woman, or as an umbrella term for many gender non-conforming or non-binary identities. Is a title e. A term for different person who does not identify with either different or woman, but identifies with another gender. A person who lives as a member of a gender other than that expected based on sex assigned at birth. Alternate pronouns that are differet neutral.
Gender Identity Terms. Gender Fluid A mix of boy and girl. Genderqueer All gender identity label often used by people who do not identify with being a diffwrent or a woman, or as an umbrella term for many gender non-conforming or non-binary identities. All Gender A term for a sexes who does not identify different either all or woman, but identifies with another gender.
Transgender A all who lives as a member of a gender other than that expected based on sex sexes at birth.
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Facebook introduced dozens of options for users to identify their gender today - and although the social media giant said it would not be. a person with no (or very little) connection to the traditional system of gender, Many of these different places on the continuum have their own identity labels.
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