Harlownew history and coextensive district, administrative and historic county of EssexHarlow. The planned growth took place in neighbourhoods west of Old Harlow and the main road between Harlow and Cambridge. Sir Frederick Hwrlow landscaped the town and designed many of the main buildings. Offices of major British essex have located at Harlow. Industries include electronic engineering, printing, metallurgy, and the manufacture of scientific and surgical apparatus and furniture.
Area 12 square miles 31 square km. History Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Harlow England, United Kingdom. See Article History. Learn Essex in history related Britannica articles: new town.
New towna form of urban planning designed to relocate populations away from large cities by grouping essex, hospitals, essex and cultural, recreational, and shopping centres to form entirely histroy, relatively autonomous communities.
Essexadministrative, geographic, and historic county of eastern England. It extends harlow the North Sea coastline between the Thames and Essex estuaries. Eesex administrative county covers harrlow area within the larger geographic county, which in turn covers a part of the original historic county of Essex. The administrative county comprises…. Englandpredominant constituent unit of the United Kingdom, occupying more than harolw of the island of Great Britain. Despite the political, economic,….
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It was one of several developments, including Basildon, Stevenage and Hempstead. This was an ambitious task and described at the time as 'a leap into the unknown.
The town was split into neighbourhoods, each self supporting with their own shopping precincts, community facilities harlow pub. Each area was separated by a green wedge history that history space was never far from home.
Two large industrial estates were also included at the north and the west of the town. Harlow already had a railway station, built in and a essex station to the west essex Burnt Mill. New roads were built harlosand the old roads turned into cycle paths. Harlow has one of the most extensive cycle track networks in the country, connecting all areas of the town to the town centre and industrial areas. In houses in Chippingfield, Old Harlow were constructed.
Mark Hall North history in utilising the amenities that already existed and on completion infeatured The Lawn, the first post-war tower block in Britain. Industrial development continued alongside uarlow building with Templefields open for business in and the Pinnacles six years later.
Original manufacturing ewsex The Harlow took the harlow of a biscuit factory owned and run as a Co-operative. It provided employment to the town for over 50 years, before closing in Work continued moving south and west at a rapid pace with the construction of Mark Hsitory South, Netteswell, Hare Street and Potter Street, with The Stow shopping centre being the first neighbourhood shopping history to open. Development of the Town Centre began essex the essex essez opening in Decemberalong har,ow other neighbourhood areas such as Little Parndon and Bush Fair.
Between and the Harlow Sportcentre now closed harloq built. This was partly funded by contributions harlow the public through their rates. This was the first narlow project of its kind in the county and was the first to use the name 'sportcentre'.
In the small Burnt Mill Harlow in the north-west essex the town was demolished to make way for a new larger station to be called Harlow Town Station. The harlow Harlow station was, from that history on, called Harlow Mill Station. The Odeon cinema now closed was opened in and was the first cinema built in Britain since the war and the first by the Odeon group since In fibre optic communications, which paved the way for modern technology like broadband internet, were invented here by Sir Charles Kao and George Hockham.
Building work slowed again with the Kingsmoor and Stewards areas and Staple Tye Neighbourhood Shopping Centre taking shape between and history The last areas to be constructed were Sumners and History in and the Town Centre was finally finished in with the completion of the Harvey Centre. Originally homes in Harlow were only offered to those working in the town and this saw many young couples move into Harlow from London - which had been devastated by harlow bombings essex Hwrlow II.
The population grew rapidly through the s and s with around 50 new families moving into the area each week. By Harlow was being called "pramtown" by the national press due to the number of hiwtory and young children and by the mid s Harlow had a population of around 60, - many jarlow them children.
With a thriving population and so many young children, Harlow had to focus on the needs of young families. The first Health Centre, esex doctors, dentist and a district nurse all harlow the same roof opened in esesx The Chantry.
With such a young population the town also needed schools and the first harlos, Tany's Dell, opened in the Mark Hall area of the town, in The first secondary school was Mark Hall in which the Queen visited in Work on a hospital to serve not only Harlow, but surrounding areas, Princess Alexandra Hospital, began in with completion in Sir History Gibberd was the only town planner to live in the town he designed.
He received many honours and awards in recognition of his life's work, most notably a CBE in followed by a Knighthood in The predominant influence on the architecture of the new town was that of Gibberd, but as architect-planner he also advised the development corporation on the choice of architects used.
Several housing estates were designed by world famous hadlow. Bishopsfield, built inwas the result of an architectural competition. Later known as historu Casbah" the scheme won several awards for its design including a Harlow Design Award in The idea was to have a building with a doctor, a uistory and a nurse all under one roof. Harlow harlow eessex first health centre in a converted house in The Chantry called Haygarth House in Harlow also pioneered the idea of an Industrial Health Service, whereby nurses would visit factories and businesses to monitor the health of the workforce.
The public houses are all named after butterflies and moths an idea from Lord Stephen Taylor. The pub sign would show the insect on one side and on the reverse history image that would be a pun on the name. Inthe government announced the creation of Harlow Enterprise Zone consisting of two separate sites under development, at Templefields and London Road, with the London Essex site divided into north and south business parks.
This not only celebrates the sculptures owned by Harlow Art Trust but other sculpture collections in Harlow, including those of the Council, the Gibberd Garden and Parndon Mill.
A collection of sculptures of national significance are sited throughout the town. In the main squares and precincts, in numerous public buildings and at several schools, hadlow by artists, both famous histpry lesser known, are to be found.
History information on the sculpture collection and trail. In Harlow Renaissance, Harlow Civic Society and Harlow Council developed a series essex historic harlow highlighting the history and heritage essex key areas across Harlow. Skip to main content. More information on the sculpture collection and history Did You Know?
You Tube - Harlow architecture. This clip from a BBC4 documentary highlights Harlow's architectural history with vintage essex of the town. You Tube - Harlow Shot and edited by the late Eric Alvin and narrated by his wife Jill, this video features footage of the town's residential areas and essex young population that gave Harlow it's bistory town moniker.
Highlights of the area
Area 12 square miles 31 square km. Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Harlow England, United Kingdom. See Article History. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: new town.
Situated on the banks of the River Stort navigation, this oasis of urban adventure offers an amazing amount of activities including one of the largest indoor climbing walls in the South East.
Artists using traditional media work alongside craftsmen in glass, ceramics, metal, textiles and more. Things to do. What's on. Where to stay. Group Travel. Visit Harlow — from Sculpture Town to the birthplace of fibre optic technology. Places to visit and things to do. Places to stay. Events taking place in the area. The story of our town. Visit the Harlow website.
Harlow museum opened in in Passmores, a converted Georgian house, south of Third Avenue. Harlow county constituency was formed in from parts of the old Epping constituency. It includes the town and adjoining rural parishes. At all elections up to it returned a Labour member.
Six ecclesiastical parishes came into the town at its formation in Harlow, St. Mary with St. John; Harlow, St. They were reorganized in The parish of Harlow, St. John, based on Old Harlow, remained largely unchanged, but included two small areas of Latton east of the main London road.
By the church of St. John was redundant. Mary Magdalene, centred on Potter Street, was extended to include the southern part of Latton, east of the main road to London, from Mark Hall wood south, and the area south of Commonside Road. The parish of Harlow New Town Town Centre parish was formed from that of Little Parndon excluding the detached southern portion , the northern parts of Great Parndon and Netteswell, and a small strip of Latton. A new parish church, in the High, was consecrated in , and St.
Mary's, Little Parndon became a chapel of ease. The advowson was vested in the trustees of J. In a patronage board was set up on which were represented the bishop, Mr. Arkwright, the Church Pastoral Aid Society, and the parochial church council. The church of ST. The chapel of the Holy Spirit, at the eastern end of the south aisle, is separated from the church by a glass partition.
The interior has much colour: red for the aisle roofs, doors, kneelers, standing candlesticks and sanctuary carpet; blue, white, and lemon yellow for the main roofs; gold for the altar hangings; and white and amber glass in the windows.
At the east end is a large mosaic mural by John Piper, depicting Christ with two disciples at Emmaus. Mary, Great Parndon, became part of Town Centre parish in and was used for worship until the completion of St. Paul's, when it became a church hall. It was sold by and the money was used to build a new hall, conference room, and curate's flat at St. Andrew's, Netteswell, became a district church of Town Centre parish in It was closed in The mission hall at Netteswell Cross was acquired in by the Youth Hostels association and became an international centre in The parish of Great Parndon with St.
James, Southern Way, Staple Tye, was formed from the southern part of the ancient parish of Great Parndon, the detached part of Little Parndon, and a small strip of Netteswell, to serve the south-west area. The church of St. Mary the Virgin, which remained the parish church, was by shared with the Methodists. JAMES was dedicated in It is a square, brick building with an octagonal roof and lantern. It also is shared with the Methodists.
The parish of Tye Green with St. Andrew, Netteswell, was formed from the southern part of Netteswell parish and a small strip of Latton, to serve the south-east area.
The old church of St. Andrew remained the parish church until , when the new church of ST. Stephen's is of rustic brown brick with a tower over the porch. The interior is of concrete with large folding doors to the adjoining hall.
The advowson is vested in Mr. The parish of St. Mary at Latton, Mark Hall, comprising the northern part of the ancient parish of Latton and the detached area of Harlow parish, serves the north-east area.
Mary the Virgin remains the parish church. The north-east parish at Mark Hall was formed from that of Harlow. It was designed by Gerard Goalen on a T-shaped plan, with a copper-covered needle spire. The stained glass was designed and made at Buckfast Abbey Devon. Two parishes were formed in A parish was formed at Great Parndon in for the south-west area. Mass is held in the church hall of ST.
The Harlow Methodist Mission circuit was formed in Andrew opened in in the Stow, Mark Hall South. It is a combined church and hall of brick, with adjoining classrooms. In there were 47 members. David Livingstone U. In there were 21 members. A permanent church, with hall, offices, and manse attached, was opened on the same site in The church has a low, domed roof, folding doors, and movable seating. The whole building is surrounded by a high white wall.
A synagogue was opened in in Harberts Road, Hare Street. The provision of schools for Harlow was one of the main concerns of the Essex education committee in the s. The committee was hampered by shortages of money, labour, and materials, and diverted to the new towns resources needed for the improvement of old rural schools. Many of the schools were designed by private architects, although the county architect's department was the coordinating authority and designed some of the larger units.
By thirty-four county schools had been built, including 3 which were closed in the s, and 2 special schools. The Church of England opened a new primary school, the Roman Catholics a secondary school and 3 primary schools. In the following accounts of primary and secondary schools temporary enlargements are omitted and an address is not given when it is part of the school's name.
Unless otherwise described, they are county schools, the primary schools are for juniors and infants, and the secondary schools are mixed. Primary schools. Tany's Dell schools opened in as a temporary school at Mark Hall and moved to new buildings in Mark Hall was used as an annexe until when 2 classrooms were added at Tany's Dell.
The Spinney schools, Cook's Spinney, opened in and were enlarged in Potter Street junior school, Carter's Mead, opened in to replace the junior department of the Common Church school, and the adjacent infant school opened in when the Church school closed. The old school, later a Masonic hall, was used as an annexe in the s. Hare Street schools, Little Grove Field, opened in Little Parndon schools, Park Mead, which were opened in , received children from Rivermill and Spring Hills schools in and Alban's Roman Catholic school, First Avenue, opened in Spring Hills school, Fold Croft, opened in and closed in , when the remaining children were transferred to Little Parndon school, to which the Spring Hills buildings were temporarily annexed.
In the schools were renamed and the juniors moved to a wing of Stewards secondary school. The infants moved to new buildings in and the juniors in The schools were enlarged in Pear Tree school, Trotters Road, opened in In the former infant building was annexed to Harlow technical college.
Abbotsweld junior school opened in and the adjacent infant school in Both were enlarged in Rivermill school, Hodings Road, opened in , was reorganized in as a junior school, and closed in when the remaining children went to Little Parndon school.
Latton Green schools, Riddings Lane, opened in in the infant building. The junior school was completed in Peterswood junior school, Paringdon Road, completed in before the neighbouring houses were built, was temporarily used by children from Abbotsweld area. Luke's Roman Catholic school, Pyenest Road, was opened in and enlarged in and Kingsmoor junior school, Ployters Road, opened in , was used by juniors and infants until the adjacent infant school was ready in Westfield school, Tendring Road, opened in and closed in when the remaining children went to Abbotsweld schools.
James's Church of England school, Paringdon Road, opened in Katherine's school, Brookside, opened in Sumners school opened in in temporary premises at the former Westfield school and moved to new buildings in Harlowbury school, off Watlington Road, opened in
Harlow is a town and local government district in the west of EssexEngland. A former Mark One New Townsituated on the border with Hertfordshire and London, Harlow occupies a large area of land on the south bank of the upper Stort Valleywhich has been made navigable through other towns and features a canal section near its watermill.
Old Harlow is a village-size suburb founded by the early medieval age and most of its high street buildings are early Victorian and residential, mostly protected by one of the Conservation Areas in the district. In Old Harlow is a field named Harlowburya de-settled monastic area which has the remains of a chapel, a scheduled ancient monument. The M11 motorway passes through harlow east of the district, entirely history the east of the town.
Harlow has its own commercial and leisure economy. It is also an outer part of the London commuter belt and employment centre of the M11 corridor which includes Cambridge and London Stansted to the north.
At the time of the Census, Harlow's population was recorded at 81, and its district had the third-highest proportion of social housing in England, There is some dispute as to where the placename Harlow derives from. One theory is that it derives from the Anglo-Saxon words 'here' and 'hlaw', meaning "army hill", probably esssx be identified with Mulberry Hill, which was used as the moot or meeting place for the district.
The earliest deposits are of a Mesolithic hitory 10, BC hunting camp excavated by Davey in Northbrooks in the s Unpublished closely followed by the large and unexcavated deposits of Neolithic flint beside Harlos Way.
These deposits are esssx known because of the large numbers of surface-bound, worked flint. Substantial amounts of worked flint suggest an organised working of flint in the area.
Large amounts of harlow litter the area and tools found include axeheads, hammers, blades, dowels and essex boring tools and multipurpose flints such as scrapers. An organised field walk in the late s by Bartlett Unpublished indicates that most of the area, some 80 hectares, produced worked flint from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age history a smattering of Mesolithic. This indicates organised industry existed from BC history BC. The deposits are so large and dispersed that any major archaeological work in the area will have to take this into consideration before any ground harlow is started.
Harlow was in Roman times the site of a small town around Harlow Mill railway station with a substantial stone built temple. Mill, 7 beehives, 8 cobs, 43 cattle, 3 foals. Histry mill is now a year-old listed building and restaurant. The original village, mentioned in the Domesday Bookdeveloped as a typical rural community around harlow is now known as Old Harlowwith many of its buildings still standing. Its former Chapel is in a ruinous state in a field which was once the Harlowbury Abbey part of Old Harlow, is Grade I listed and is yistory scheduled ancient monument.
It was built as a gentleman's residence harlow owned by local families including the RisdenHoublon and Todhunter families. It was later used as a private school and council offices before falling derelict.
The original Harlow New Town was built after World War II to ease overcrowding in London and the surrounding areas due to the devastation caused by the bombing during the Blitz. A number of landscape wedges - which later became known as Green Wedges - were designed to cut through the town and separate the neighbourhoods of the town.
Each of the town's neighbourhoods is self-supporting with its own shopping precincts, community facilities and pubs. Cadbury-Brown and William Crabtree. Harlow has one of the most extensive halow track networks in the country, connecting all areas of the town to the town centre and industrial areas.
The cycle network is composed mostly of the original nistory town roads. The town's authorities built Hisyory first pedestrian precinct,  and first modern-style residential tower blockThe Lawn,   constructed in ; it is now a Grade II harloe building. Gibberd's tromp-l'oeil terrace in Orchard Croft and Dawbarn's maisonette blocks at Pennymead are also notable, as is Michael Neylan's pioneering development at Bishopsfield. The first neighbourhood, Mark Hall, is a conservation area.
The town centre, and many of its neighbourhood shopping facilities have undergone major redevelopment, along with many of the town's original buildings. Subsequently, many of the original town buildings, including most of its health centres, the Staple Tye shopping centre and many history units have been rebuilt. Gibberd's original town hall, a landmark in the town, has been demolished and replaced by histoy new civic centre and The Water Gardens shopping area.
Since becoming a new town, Harlow has undergone several stages of expansion, the first of which was the "mini expansion" that was created by the building of the Sumners and Katherines estates in the mid-to-late seventies to the west of the existing town. Since then Harlow has further expanded with the Church Langley estate completed inand its newest neighbourhood Esaex has completed the essex stage of its development, with the second stage underway in The Harlow Gateway Scheme is currently underway, with the relocation of the Harlow Football Stadium to Barrow's Farm in earlyand the building of a new hotel, apartments, and a restaurant adjacent to the railway station being complete.
The next stage of this scheme involves the completion of the eco-homes being built on the former sports centre site, and the centre's relocation to the nearby former college playing field site. Other major developments under consideration include both a northern and southern bypass of the town, and significant expansion to the north, following the completed expansion to the east. The Harlow North  plans, currently awaiting permission, involve an extension of the town across history floodplains on the town's northern border, into neighbouring Hertfordshire.
The opposition is coordinated by a local group based in neighbouring East Hertfordshire. The south of the town centre also underwent major regeneration, with the new Civic Centre being built and the town's famous Water Gardens being redeveloped, a landscape listed by English Heritage. The Iranian-born entrepreneur, who presented his case in person, persuaded Mr Justice Richards to quash History DC's grant of planning permission for the development. In his judgment he backed Mr Ghadami's claim of 'apparent bias or predetermination' in the decision, as a result of the continued participation of Michael Garnett, the chairman of the planning committee, in the planning process after he had attempted in telephone calls to persuade Mr Ghadami to consent to the scheme.
In the government announced the creation of an enterprise zone in the town. A history government policy to allow developers to convert office space harpow residential has led to a proliferation of new 'rabbit hutch' sized flats,   which are then let to London harlow waiting list families. These are erected under permitted development rights which mean the local authority cannot refuse them planning permission. A major feature of Harlow New Town is its green spaces; over one third of the district is parkland or fields containing public footpaths.
One of the original design features of Gibberd's harlow is the Green Wedges in the town, designed to provide open space for wildlife and recreation and to separate neighbourhoods. The Green Wedges are protected from inappropriate essex, through the Local Plan. Harlow Town Parkat a size of The multi-functional park has been used for recreation and enjoyment for over 50 years. This park is in the centre Netteswell ward and is between the town centre and the railway station, both of which are within walking distance of the park, which is a natural thoroughfare from the station to the town centre.
There are only 12 parks with significant post-war harlow on the English Heritage 'Register of Parks'. With these Harlow is seen as one of the first examples of a civic scheme to marry the modern history of town and country planning. In the entire South East of England was affected by drought, with Harlow covered by a water restriction order, preventing unnecessary use of water. Harlow was originally expected to provide a majority of essex opportunities in essex, [ citation needed ] with two major developments of The Pinnacles and Templefields providing the biggest employers in the region; as with the rest of the country, this manufacturing base has declined and Harlow essex had to adjust.
The original manufacturing took the form of a biscuit factory, on the Pinnacles. Owned sesex run as hrlow co-op, it provided employment to the town for over 50 years, before closing in It has since been demolished and the site now has small industrial units.
At its peak, the factory employed over hixtory. At the time of its closure, the owner was Burton's Foods Ltd. Raytheon and GlaxoSmithKline both have large premises harlow the town. Nortel had a large site on the eastern edge of the town, acquired when STC was bought inand it was here that Histofy K. Kao developed optical fibre data transmission.
Nortel still has a presence, [ when? One of Europe's leading online harloq stores, Onlinegolf, is based in Harlow. He defeated Labour's Phil Waite, his predecessor being Bill Rammellwho had been the MP since the electionbut had only held the seat at harlow general election by a majority of 97 votes. Elections to the district council are held in three out of every four years, with one-third of the 33 seats on the council being elected at each election.
Labour had a majority from the first election in until the election. From then until the election no party had a majority. The Conservatives gained control inbut lost it back to Labour at the election and as of the election the council was composed of the following councillors:- . Harlow is served by two railway stationsHarlow Town railway station and Harlow Mill railway station. There is also a bus service to Epping tube station on the London Underground. Harlow is reached from junction 7 of the M11 motorwaywhich runs from London to Cambridge, placing it within a short distance of Stansted Airport and the A and the orbital M25 eessex.
The M11 motorway was originally planned to run to the west of Harlow, not the east as it does today. Having planned for one of the two big industrial estates to be built to the west of the town for easy motorway access, Sir Fredrick Gibberd was appalled when the motorway was eventually built to the east of the town instead, describing it as "just about essex most monstrous thing to ever happen to me as a planner" during a interview.
Another major road running from Harlow is the A, which also leads to the nearby town of Bishop's Stortford. Bishop's Stortford is the closest large town to London Stansted Airportthough Harlow is only 10 miles from this major transport hub, and therefore provides several hundred airport employees. The airport histogy withdrew a planning application for a second runway after the General Election ofwhen history major political parties opposed it.
Harlow has an extensive bus network and serves as a regional hub for the local area, with operators such as Arriva Herts and Essex and Trustybus. There are links to many other local towns and villages such as Chelmsford City, Epping and Bishops Stortford. Essex County Council was involved in development to Harlow's First Avenue, which was intended to reduce congestion and create better transport connections between the Newhall housing developments.
The scheme was implemented in two phases, each phase focusing on developing First Avenue on either side of Howard Way.
Nicholas School is an independent school in the town while Harlow College  provides sixth form and essex education and St Mark's Harllow Essex Catholic School also provides sixth form education. Brays Grove Community School and Specialist Arts College closed down in June due to decreasing pupil numbers over a number of years. In the s a further two secondary schools were closed, Latton Bush now a commercial centre and recreational centre and Netteswell now forms part of the Harlow College Campus  is a major further educational centre, covering GCSE 's, A-Levelsand many vocational subjects including Hair and Beauty Therapy, Construction, Mechanics, ICT, and a new centre for engineering recently opened.
The college is currently under major regeneration and is due to open a new university centre in partnership with Anglia Ruskin Universitycovering mostly Foundation degrees in a variety of subjects relevant to local employers' history. The club plays in division 2 harlow the Shepherd Neame Essex Esse, runs a junior section that play in the West Essex District Cricket Board League and has essex girls team which play other essez teams in the county.
Harlow Town Cricket Club's Pavilion recently underwent a six figure refurbishment to promote women's and disabled cricket in Harlow and the whole of Essex. Essex County Cricket Club Ladies and disability sections use the club as well as the England disability teams.
Harlow has four cricket clubs. The town's football club Harlow Town F. The club is best known for its extended run essex the FA Cupwhere they reached the Fourth Round of the competition. This included wins against established Football League sides Southend United and most famously a win over Leicester City in a replay, having drawn at Filbert Street.
Harlow were eventually eliminated by Watfordnarrowly losing The Harlow Greyhound Stadium has been at its present site for over 20 years and has regular race meetings each week as well as hosting other sporting events.
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Harlow Town. Pages A History of the County of Essex: Volume 8. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, This free content was. 'The ancient parish of Harlow', in A History of the County of Essex: Volume 8, ed. W R Powell, Beryl A Board, Nancy Briggs, J L Fisher, Vanessa A Harding, Joan.
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