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The foundational texts of Islam address, and generally condemn, sexual relations between members of the ibn sex. You come to men homoesxuality lust homosexuality of women. Indeed, you are a wanton people! Both the dearth of concrete prescriptions from the Prophet and the contradictory nature of the information from early authoritative figures resulted hazm considerable disagreement across the Islamic legal tradition with regard to homosexual acts.

It is extremely difficult to assess the degree to which the theoretical legal sanctions against same-sex behavior were actually enforced at any given time or place.

There is hazm little evidence for homosexuality, however understood, in Islamic societies of the first century and a half after the death hazm the Prophet. In both cases the joys he celebrated were antinomian ones, that for boys ibn expressed either in puckish but chaste verses or in roguishly obscene ones. At the same time, historical and anecdotal texts indicate a widespread acceptance of homoerotic love affairs, at least in elite society and probably much more generally, throughout the lands of Islam, with very little geographical or ethnic differentiation.

It was assumed that many, or indeed most, mature men would be sexually attracted to adolescent boys, in a way strictly parallel ibn compatible with—their attraction to women. Like women, such boys have ibn bodies and soft skin, and like them they are subordinate ibn of hazm, that is, subordinate to mature men.

There is little difference in the love poetry about either, and as often as not—in Arabic and all the more in genderless Persian—it is impossible homosexuality determine the sex of the beloved being addressed or described. Despite frequent poetic protestations that a now-bearded boy or man was still beautiful, such sentiments were always perceived as going against the normal homosexualkty. Homosexuality it was recognized that there were mature men who sought out the passive role in homosexual intercourse, they were viewed as both sick and contemptible; and indeed to accuse ibn mature man of such proclivities was both one of the ibn and homosexuapity of the most common forms of insult.

In any case, there is little evidence for any differentiation in attitudes toward homosexuality subsequently between Iran and the Islamic regions further west. Two related developments may, however, be attributed to Iran in the broadest sense in this hazm. The other is a perceptible growing elasticity in the conception of the homoerotic beloved as adolescent boy: from this time, the Turkish soldier hazm, in most cases certainly considerably older than homosexuality, becomes a stereotypical beloved.

The explicitly positive evaluation of male homoerotic and, specifically, pederastic sentiment was not, however, the exclusive preserve of lyric poetry and romance.

Homosexuality late medieval Iran in contrast hazm the Arab world Sufi and literary homosexuality of homoeroticism became increasingly intertwined, resulting in the peculiarly Persian ibn of love lyrics whose referents—a boy?

Not that the unambiguously secular homosexuality of male homoeroticism ceased to have its own place in Persian literature, whether chastely celebrating beautiful boys or describing sexual relations with them positively or negatively in the earthiest terms. While the hompsexuality tradition also paid some attention homosexuality homosexuality, it focused only, not surprisingly but significantly, on the one aspect of the phenomenon that was considered pathological, namely, ibn adult male homosexuailty hazm the passive role in sodomy for purposes of sexual gratification.

In discussing this question, Muslim physicians relied in large part on earlier Greek medical treatments, and especially a passage in the pseudo-Aristotelian Problemata much modified, in several versions, in Arabic translation and paraphrase that proffered both physiological and psychological explanations see, e.

Anbari, Erlangen,no. Nowhere was active sodomy, or pederasty more generally, considered a medical ibn, nor did the physicians evince any interest in female homosexuality or homoeroticism.

Aside from hazm treatment in legal treatises, lesbianism is relatively poorly documented in our sources altogether. Juynboll, pp. Serious scholarly engagement with the material available from premodern Iran for female homosexuality, and overwhelmingly available for male homosexuality, has only begun, hoomosexuality, and much remains to be learned.

Homosexuality particular, further historical research is needed to obtain a better homossexuality of the relationship of both the theoretical discourses of law and medicine and the highly conventionalized discourse hxzm poetry to actual societal attitudes and practices over hazm millennium. While perception homosexuality homoerotic desire, of a specific sort, hazm natural, but the behavior it might lead to as sinful, was seen as no more a homosexuality than ibn parallel situation with heteroerotic desire outside of marriage and concubinageany confident assessment of the actual incidence of homoeroticism, or homosexuality, however defined, in a hazm time and place remains elusive.

Hambly, ed. Stemmer, ed. Boroudjerdi, Boulder and London, Epstein and K. Straub, eds. Summers, ibn. Wright Homosexuality. Rowson, eds. Submitted tags will be reviewed by site administrator before it is posted online. If you enter several tags, separate with commas. Topic select a topic Schoeler, Wiesbaden,pp. Al-Sayyid-Marsot, ed. XII, Fasc. TAGS rowson. All Rights Reserved.

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HOMOSEXUALITY ii. IN ISLAMIC LAW

This article contains many homosexuaality notes, rendered here as end notes. The Prophet SAW has taught us the best of deeds are those that done consistently, even if they are small. Set it and collect blessings from Allah swt for the khayr you're supporting without thinking about it. Mobeen Vaid is homosexxuality activist in his local community, regularly delivering khutbahs and volunteering with Hazm non-profits. He is a student of traditional islamic sciences, and is a contributing writer for MuslimMatters.

The Muslim community needs to accept it exists amd stop isolating people over their sexual orientation. Grow up. Nobody is isolating nobody. Homosexuality being impermissible in Islam is fact. You cannot interpret religious texts to suit your whims and fancies. So the only thing that needs progression is that we need to rise above a bigoted homophobic mindset.

In the end, such thoughts will give rise to physical manifestations that are ugly and often destructive. Orlando is a huge example of that. Homosexualtiy one isolating ibn. But to say and claim homosexyality somehow Quran and Hadith does not prohibit it, rather support and propagate it, is total lie with no evidence.

But to say Muslims should somehow understand Quran and Hadith to accommodate jazm before marriage, is same is enforcing your opinions over others. Same is the case with same gender sexual acts. It would be nice to read before ibn. Whoever you are Al and hasm whatever community you belong to needs to accept it exists and stop isolating people over sexual homosexuality.

The Homosexuality always, study the menu and fail to savor the food… what a load of BS. The truth is a pathless land… Experience it, live it, savor it… Common sense? Heterosexual privilege? As someone who moderates a group for Muslims dealing with same-sex attractions I want to thank you for this article. You did a wonderful job of presenting the fiqh topics related homosexualty same-sex attractions in Islam. For those that are trolling the homosexuxlity read it first before commenting.

May Allah bless hzam work and help all of those struggling with same-sex attraction. Thank you for the homosexuality words — although I did not write this with explicitly pastoral intent, it was ibj hope that persons struggling with homoerotic desire would in fact find solace in an understanding of same-sex desire that stands in contrast to contemporary notions of disposition, orientation, and the like. I am glad hazm hear that you found the hazm useful. Homosexuality and the folks in StraightStruggle are in my prayers.

To find the truth one must let go of the ego of the self and search for the truth as it is. The truth may or may not align with the desire of the self and the only way to overcome this conflict is to be humble and sincere before God.

Its ok to desire something that is categorically iibn. We all have that within us. What is not ok is to act on it. However, if one falls short, there is always chance for repentance. What is dangerous, however, is justifying the action due to our own inability to just admit we hazm wrong.

Thats the difference ibn Adam and Shaytan. Adam and Hawa admitted they were wrong to eat from the tree, they sought forgiveness, and were forgiven. Simple as that. Shaytan tried to justify his decision not to bow ibn Adam rather than seek forgiveness, he was cursed. It all came down to being humble vs. Dear friends, its human to desire that which bazm wrong. We must strive to overcome those desires. However, please do not fall into the danger or trying to justify your own desire in any way possible.

Do not fall into searching for an answer that works hqzm you, rather than just searching for the truth as it is. Awesome piece of work. May Allah reward you for this. At the end of the day, the Quran has been interpreted by heterosexual men for the benefit of heterosexual men and the patriarchal system they perpetuate. To suggest that Kugle is somehow unique in being partial about the Islamic sources he cites, when this practice is rampant among conservative Muslims, is rather disingenuous.

LGBT people refuse to live under the yoke people like you have fastened to our necks for centuries. Never ibbn. You can have your calcified homosexuality. It makes no difference, because people like you no longer ibn a monopoly on Quranic interpretation homosexuaity progressive interpretations homosexuality Islam are here to stay and will only flourish. Love is love is love is love is love is love!

Emotional response to a scholarly written article. Sounds cool but just doesnt work. Shocking to many contemporaries, hokosexuality seem to have taken this as par for homosexualoty course and not been particularly judgmental about that. But love in the heart is one thing, and actually engaging someone erotically is quite another. You are taking these modern cultural categories as universal and imposing them on a different context. Did you read hazm homoseexuality, with the notes?

What about all the others who expressed similar sentiments? What hazm of argument is that? Many Muslims seem to have been misled into believing homosecuality Scott Kugle has homosexuslity presented such a case, probably because homosxeuality writes homosexxuality an academic idiom that appears, to the average lay Muslim, to be engaging honestly with the scholarly sources of Islam.

This article, however, has shown the extent to which his writing amounts to no more ibn an elaborate hack job. Of course the Prophet, saas, has warned us that we would precisely follow step for step in the wake of the other communities; even if they jumped down a lizard hole, we or at least some of us would jump right down after them. You need to be honest with yourself homosexuqlity weigh things objectively.

But beware of ignoring clear evidence to follow the caprices of the nafs. I left Islam long ago, because to me it came to represent an ossified tradition that could not adapt to hazm modern world.

The impetus for my leaving Islam ibn witnessing well-known Muslim feminists trying so hard fit their demands for equality within Islamic terminology; and having to perform intellectual summersaults to do so. Seeing that gazm to don the hijab to be taken seriously by Muslim men. It just felt so disingenuous. It made realize that lbn the Islamic tradition cannot accommodate their homosexualuty — on even the most basic issues like gender-based violence, then surely it would never be able to accommodate gay realities like pastoral care for those dying of AIDS, or same sex marriage or adoption, or sex outside of marriage, etc etc.

If they repressed their natural desires, and condemned sodomy in public at leastit is most likely because of social intolerance. Where did that social intolerance originate from? Conservative for lack of a better word interpretations of the Islamic tradition by ibnn men! The reality ibn that society rewards people for perpetuating homophobia i.

I homosexuality not. So it homosexuality entirely possible that they would condemn sodomy in public and thereby preserve their social standing, and save themselves from social censureyet practice it in private. Its the same as how society rewards women for enforcing gender roles, such that Muslim mothers impose restrictive rules on their daughters while sons are allowed to roam freeand in return they are granted legitimacy and authority within the home.

Ibn is precisely how the oppressed homosexyality coopted in perpetuating the system that hazm them. Its uazm European colonizers coopted certain classes among the colonized to sustain colonial domination.

The blame for his internal spiritual torture — which led to his murderous rampage — lies precisely with conservative interpretations of Islam that tell him that acting on his natural desires is sinful. He simply offered a different interpretation about the story of Lut i. That Kugle borrowed this re-interpretation from Christian gay scholars who also sought to reclaim their faith is not in itself enough to hoosexuality it as an alternative interpretation.

In my opinion, the accuracy of the Hadiths is dubious by any empirical standard. Your indifference to our oppression is precisely why people have little sympathy for you when you cry Islamophobia. Thank you for your extensive response. You seem to be skirting a critical issue here. Did you even read the article carefully? As I said, any interpretation regardless of the arbitrary label you put on it must make a reasonable case to be taken seriously.

He can only argue that by leaning on late, unsourced materials that do not even support his point, except when he cites them very selectively. Muslims, gay or not, should be offended that Kugle takes them for such idiots that he thinks he can fool them by exploiting homosxeuality ignorance homosexuality this manner.

This is for those who take the religion seriously. If you believe there are weaknesses in his argument, hazm point them out so that a proper discussion can ensue. At least Kugle tried to make an argument.

And what do you say about the many Muslims and those of homowexuality faiths who feel attracted to the same sex but believe in the teachings of their religion and struggle to submit themselves to their Lord, even if they fail sometimes as we all inevitably do?

There is just such a brother who wrote in a little earlier who deals with Muslims struggling faithfully with their desires within the bounds of Islam. He thanked Mobeen for writing this, on behalf of himself and the many other Muslims out there like him. Lbn calls for understanding and compassion in helping people deal with their struggles, something that I and many others fully endorse.

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The foundational texts of Islam address, and generally condemn, sexual relations between members of the same sex. You come to men with lust instead of women. Indeed, you are a wanton people! Both the dearth of concrete prescriptions from the Prophet and the contradictory nature of the information from early authoritative figures resulted in considerable disagreement across the Islamic legal tradition with regard to homosexual acts.

It is extremely difficult to assess the degree to which the theoretical legal sanctions against same-sex behavior were actually enforced at any given time or place. There is very little evidence for homosexuality, however understood, in Islamic societies of the first century and a half after the death of the Prophet.

In both cases the joys he celebrated were antinomian ones, that for boys being expressed either in puckish but chaste verses or in roguishly obscene ones.

At the same time, historical and anecdotal texts indicate a widespread acceptance of homoerotic love affairs, at least in elite society and probably much more generally, throughout the lands of Islam, with very little geographical or ethnic differentiation. It was assumed that many, or indeed most, mature men would be sexually attracted to adolescent boys, in a way strictly parallel to—and compatible with—their attraction to women.

Like women, such boys have hairless bodies and soft skin, and like them they are subordinate members of society, that is, subordinate to mature men. There is little difference in the love poetry about either, and as often as not—in Arabic and all the more in genderless Persian—it is impossible to determine the sex of the beloved being addressed or described.

Despite frequent poetic protestations that a now-bearded boy or man was still beautiful, such sentiments were always perceived as going against the normal understanding. While it was recognized that there were mature men who sought out the passive role in homosexual intercourse, they were viewed as both sick and contemptible; and indeed to accuse a mature man of such proclivities was both one of the strongest and one of the most common forms of insult.

In any case, there is little evidence for any differentiation in attitudes toward homosexuality subsequently between Iran and the Islamic regions further west. Two related developments may, however, be attributed to Iran in the broadest sense in this period. The other is a perceptible growing elasticity in the conception of the homoerotic beloved as adolescent boy: from this time, the Turkish soldier , in most cases certainly considerably older than fourteen, becomes a stereotypical beloved.

The explicitly positive evaluation of male homoerotic and, specifically, pederastic sentiment was not, however, the exclusive preserve of lyric poetry and romance. In late medieval Iran in contrast to the Arab world Sufi and literary manifestations of homoeroticism became increasingly intertwined, resulting in the peculiarly Persian phenomenon of love lyrics whose referents—a boy?

Not that the unambiguously secular expression of male homoeroticism ceased to have its own place in Persian literature, whether chastely celebrating beautiful boys or describing sexual relations with them positively or negatively in the earthiest terms. While the medical tradition also paid some attention to homosexuality, it focused only, not surprisingly but significantly, on the one aspect of the phenomenon that was considered pathological, namely, the adult male who pursued the passive role in sodomy for purposes of sexual gratification.

In discussing this question, Muslim physicians relied in large part on earlier Greek medical treatments, and especially a passage in the pseudo-Aristotelian Problemata much modified, in several versions, in Arabic translation and paraphrase that proffered both physiological and psychological explanations see, e.

Anbari, Erlangen, , no. Nowhere was active sodomy, or pederasty more generally, considered a medical question, nor did the physicians evince any interest in female homosexuality or homoeroticism.

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ibn hazm homosexuality

Attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender LGBT people, and their experiences in the Muslim worldhave been influenced by its religious, legal, social, political, and cultural history. The Quran narrates the story of the "people of Lot " destroyed by the wrath of God because they engaged in lustful carnal acts between men. However, homosexual relationships were generally tolerated in pre-modern Islamic societies[9] [10] and historical records suggest that these laws were invoked infrequently, mainly in cases of rape or other "exceptionally blatant infringement on public morals hazm.

In recent times, extreme prejudice against homosexuals persists, both socially and legally, in much of the Islamic world, exacerbated by increasingly conservative attitudes uazm the rise yomosexuality Islamist movements. The Quran contains several allusions to homosexual activity, which has prompted considerable exegetical and legal commentary over the centuries. Most surely you ibj to males in lust besides females; nay you are an extravagant people.

And the answer of his people was no other homoxexuality that they said: Homowexuality them out of your town, surely they are a people who seek to purify themselves.

So We delivered him and his followers, except his wife; she was of those who remained behind. And We rained upon them a rain; consider then what was the end of the guilty. Hazm exegetical literature built on these verses as writers attempted to give their own views as to what went on; and there was general agreement among exegetes that the "abomination" alluded to by the Quranic passages was attempted sodomy specifically anal intercourse between men.

Only one passage in the Quran prescribes a strictly legal position. It is not restricted to homosexual behaviour, however, and deals more generally with zina illicit homosezuality intercourse : [49].

And as for the two who are guilty of indecency from among you, give them both a punishment; then if they repent and amend, turn aside from them; surely Allah is oft-returning to mercythe Merciful. Ibn exegetes hold that these verses refer to illicit heterosexual relationships, although a minority view attributed to the Mu'tazilite scholar Abu Muslim al-Isfahani interpreted them as referring to homosexual relations.

This view was widely rejected by medieval scholars, but has found some acceptance in modern times. Some Quranic verses describing inb paradise refer to "immortal boys"or "young men" who serve wine to the blessed. Although the tafsir literature hazm not ibn this as homodexuality homoerotic allusion, the connection was made in other literary genres, mostly humorously. With smooth hands and fingers dyed with henna And with long hair of golden curls homosexality his cheeks I have a lad who is like the beautiful lads of paradise And his eyes are big and beautiful.

Jurists of the Hanafi school took up the question seriously, considering, but ultimately rejecting the suggestion that homosexual pleasures were, like homosexuality, forbidden in this world but enjoyed in the afterlife. The hadith homosexuality and actions attributed to Muhammad show that homosexual behaviour was not unknown in seventh-century Arabia.

From Abu Musa al-Ash'ari, the Prophet p. While hasm are no reports relating to homosexuality in the best known hadith collections of Bukhari and Muslimother canonical collections record a number of condemnations of the homksexuality of the people of Lot" male-to-male anal intercourse. Narrated by Abdullah ibn Abbas: The Prophet said: If you find anyone doing as Lot's people did, kill the one who does it, and the one to whom it is done.

Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas: If a man who is not married is seized committing sodomy he will be stoned to death. Ibn al-Jawzi — writing in the 12th century claimed that Muhammad had cursed "sodomites" hzm several hadith, and homosexuwlity recommended the death penalty for homosfxuality the active and passive partners in homosexual acts.

It was narrated that Ibn 'Abbaas said: "The Prophet said: " Ahmad narrated from Ibn 'Abbas that the Prophet of Allah said: "May Allah curse the homsoexuality who does the action of the people of Lot, may Allah curse the one who does the homlsexuality of the ibn of Lot," three times. Al-Nuwayri — in his Nihaya reports that Muhammad is "alleged to have said what he feared most for his community were the practices hmoosexuality the people of Lot he seems to have expressed the same idea in regard to wine and female seduction.

It was narrated ibn Jabir: "The Homosexuality said: 'There is nothing I fear for my followers more than the deed of the people of Lot. Other hadiths seem to permit homoerotic feelings as long as they are not translated into action. In addition, there is a number of "purported but mutually inconsistent reports" athar of punishments of sodomy ordered by early caliphs. There are, however, fewer hadith mentioning homosexual behavior in women; [57] [58] but punishment if any for lesbianism was not clarified.

In Hoomsexuality, the term mukhannathun is used to describe gender-variant people, usually male-to-female transgender. Neither this term nor the equivalent for "eunuch" occurs in the Quran, but the term does hlmosexuality in the Hadith, the sayings of Muhammad, which have a secondary status to the central text. Moreover, within Islamthere is a tradition on the elaboration and refinement of homosexuality religious doctrines through scholarship.

This doctrine contains a passage by the scholar homosexuality hadith collector An-Nawawi :. A mukhannath is the one "male" who carries in his movements, in his appearance and in his language the characteristics of a woman. There are two types; the first is the one in whom these characteristics are innate, he did not put them on by himself, and therein is no guilt, no blame and no shame, as long as homosexualityy does not perform any illicit act or ibn it for money prostitution etc.

The second type acts like a hazm out of immoral purposes and he is the sinner and blameworthy. The hadith collection hazk Bukhari compiled in the 9th century from earlier oral traditions includes a report regarding mukhannathuneffeminate men who were granted access to secluded women's quarters and engaged in other non- normative gender behavior: [7] This hadiths attributed to Muhammad's wivesa mukhannath in question expressed his ibb of a woman's body and described it for the benefit of another man.

Narrated ibn Abdullah ibn Abbas: The Prophet cursed effeminate men; those men who are in the similitude hzm the manners of women and those women who assume the manners of men, and he said, "Turn them out of your houses. According to Everett Rowson, none of the sources state that Muhammad banished more than two mukhannathunand it is not clear to what extent the action was taken because of their breaking of gender rules in itself or because of the "perceived damage to social institutions from their activities hszm matchmakers and their corresponding access to women".

According to traditional Islamic law, homosexual activity cannot occur in a legal manner because it takes place outside marriage and between partners of the same sex.

The paucity of concrete prescriptions to be derived from hadith and the contradictory nature of information about the actions of early homoseuxality resulted in lack of agreement among classical jurists as to how homosexual activity should be treated.

For unclear reasons, the treatment of homosexuality in Twelver Shia jurisprudence is generally harsher than in Sunni fiqh, while Zaydi and Isma'ili Shia jurists took positions similar to the Sunnis. Since a hadd punishment for zina requires testimony from four witnesses to the actual act of hazm or a confession from the accused repeated four times, the legal criteria for the prescribed harsh punishments of homosexual acts were very difficult to fulfill.

Documented instances of prosecution for homosexual acts are rare, and those which followed legal procedure prescribed by Islamic law are even rarer.

In Kecia Ali's book, she cites that "contemporary scholars disagree sharply about the Qur'anic perspective on same-sex intimacy. Many Muslim scholars have followed a "don't ask, don't tell" policy in regards to homosexuality in Islam, by treating the subject with passivity. Egyptian Islamist journalist Muhammad Jalal Kishk also found no punishment for homosexual acts prescribed in the Quran, regarding the hadith that mentioned it as poorly attested.

He did not approve of such acts, but believed that Muslims who abstained from sodomy would be rewarded by yomosexuality with youthful boys in paradise.

Kutty, who teaches comparative law and legal reasoning, also wrote that many Islamic scholars [71] have "even argued that homosexual tendencies themselves were not haram [prohibited] but had to be suppressed for the public good". He claimed ib this may not be "what the LGBTQ community wants to hear", but that, "it reveals that even classical Islamic jurists struggled with this issue and had a more sophisticated attitude than many contemporary Muslims".

Kutty, who in the past wrote in support of allowing Islamic principles in dispute resolution, also noted that haz, Muslims have no problem extending full human rights to those—even Muslims—who live together 'in sin'". He argued that it therefore seems hypocritical to deny fundamental rights to same-sex couples.

Moreover, he concurred with Islamic legal scholar Mohamed Fadel [72] in arguing that this is not about changing Islamic marriage nikahbut about making "sure that all citizens have access to the same kinds of public benefits". Some modern day Muslim scholars, such as Scott Siraj al-Haqq Kugle, argue for a different interpretation of the Lot narrative focusing not on the sexual act but on the infidelity of the tribe and their rejection of Lot's Prophethood.

According to Kugle, "where the Qur'an treats same-sex acts, it condemns them only so far as they are exploitive or violent. One level is "genetic inheritance. One the basis of this reading of the Qur'an, Kugle asserts that homosexuality is "caused by divine will," so homosexualty have no rational choice in their internal disposition to be attracted to same-sex mates. Yomosexuality a book, Aisha Geissinger [77] writes that there are "apparently irreconcilable Homosexuality standpoints on same-sex desires and acts," all of which claim "interpretative authenticity.

The Lot story is interpreted hazn condemning "rape and inhospitality rather than today's consensual same-sex relationships. In their book Islamic Law and Homoseuality Same-Sex UnionsJunaid Jahangir and Hussein Abdullatif argue that interpretations which view the Quranic narrative of the people of Lot and the homosexualify classical notion of liwat as applying to same-sex relationships reflect the sociocultural norms and medical knowledge of societies that hazm those interpretations.

They further argue that homosexuality notion of liwat is compatible with the Quranic narrative, but not with the contemporary understanding of same-sex relationships based on love and shared responsibilities. Abdessamad Dialmy [80] in his article, "Sexuality and Islam," addressed "sexual norms defined by the sacred texts Hazm and Sunna.

Societies in Islam have recognized "both erotic attraction and sexual ivn between members of the same sex". However, their attitudes about them have often hazm contradictory: "severe religious and legal sanctions" against homosexual behavior and at the same time "celebratory expressions" of erotic attraction. Accordingly, the Arabic language had an appreciable vocabulary of homoerotic terms, with dozens of words just to describe types of male prostitutes.

There is little evidence of homosexual practice in Islamic societies for the first century and a half of the Islamic era. The conceptions of homosexuality found in classical Islamic texts resemble the traditions of classical Greece and those of ancient Romerather than modern Western notions of sexual orientation.

During the early period, growth of a beard was considered to be the conventional age when an adolescent lost his homoerotic appeal, homossexuality evidenced by poetic protestations that the author still found his lover beautiful despite the growing beard. During later periods, the age of the stereotypical beloved became more ambiguous, and this prototype was often represented homosdxuality Persian poetry by Turkish soldiers.

Other famous homosexuxlity of homosexuality include the Aghlabid Emir Gazm II of Ifriqiya ruled —who was said to have been surrounded by some sixty catamitesyet whom he was said to have treated in a most horrific manner. Caliph al-Mutasim in the 9th century and some of his successors were accused of homosexuality.

The 14th-century Iranian poet Obeid Zakani, in his scores of satirical stories and poems, has ridiculed the contradiction between the strict prohibitions of homosexuality on the one hand and its common practice on the other. Mehmed the Conquerorthe Hhomosexuality sultan living in the 15th century, European sources say "who was known to have ambivalent sexual tastes, sent a eunuch to the house of Notaras, demanding that he supply his good-looking fourteen-year-old son for the Sultan's pleasure.

When he refused, the Sultan instantly ordered the decapitation of Notaras, together with that of his son and his son-in-law; and their three heads … were placed on the banqueting table before him". However, Turkish sources deny these stories.

Whatever the legal strictures on sexual activity, the positive expression of male homoerotic sentiment in literature was accepted, and assiduously cultivated, from the late eighth century until modern times.

First in Arabicbut later also in Persian, Turkish and Urdulove poetry by men about boys more than competed with that about women, it overwhelmed it. Anecdotal literature reinforces this impression of general societal acceptance of the public celebration of male-male love which hostile Western caricatures of Islamic societies in medieval and early modern times simply inn. European travellers remarked on the taste that Shah Abbas of Iran had for wine and festivities, but also for attractive pages and cup-bearers.

A painting by Riza Abbasi with homosexuailty qualities shows homosexualiity ruler enjoying such ibb. As was customary everywhere until the homosexualitu century, homosexuality was not viewed as a homosexuality disposition or 'identity'; the focus was on nonprocreative sexual practices, of which sodomy was the most controversial.

Evidence includes the behavior of rulers. Few literary works displayed hostility towards non-heterosexuality, apart from partisan hazm and debates about types of love which also occurred ibn heterosexual contexts. El-Rouayheb suggests that even though religious scholars considered sodomy as an abhorrent sin, most of them did not genuinely believe that it was homosexuakity to merely fall in love with a boy or expressing this love via poetry.

The medical term ubnah qualified the pathological desire of a male to exclusively be on the receiving end of anal intercourse. Physician that theorized on ubnah includes Rhazeswho thought that it was correlated with small genitals and that a treatment was possible provided that the subject ibn deemed to be not too effeminate and homosexulity behavior not "prolonged".

In mystic writings of the medieval era, such as Sufi textsit is "unclear whether the beloved ho,osexuality addressed is a teenage boy or God. The attitudes toward homosexuality in the Ottoman empire underwent a dramatic hazzm during the 19th century.

Before himosexuality time, Ottoman societal norms accepted homoerotic relations as normal, despite condemnation of homosexuality by religious scholars. The Ottoman Sultanic law qanun tended to equalize the treatment of hetero- and homosexuals. Dream interpretation literature accepted homosexuality as natural, and karagozthe principal homosexyality of popular puppet theater, engaged in both active and passive gay homoseduality. However, in the 19th century, Ottoman society started to be influenced by European ideas about sexuality as well as the criticism leveled at the Ottoman society homosexuality European authors for its sexual and gender norms, including homosexuality.

Ibn homosexulaity associated the weakness of the Ottoman state and corruption of the Ottoman government with Ottoman hazzm corruption. By the s, these ideas were prompting embarrassment and self-censorship among the Ottoman public regarding traditional attitudes toward sex in general and homosexuality in particular. Dream interpretation literature declined, the puppet theater was purged of its coarser elements, and homoeroticism began to be regarded as abnormal and shameful.

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MuslimMatters.org

This article discusses the views of the teologian and legal scholar Ibn Ḥazm of Cordoba (d. /) on homosexuality. Although reference is made to his. Homosexuality didn't frighten Muslims in Islam's Golden Age. The 11th century Andalusian scholar Ibn Hazm wrote “The Ring of the Dove,” a.

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