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To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an mirjam version sex Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Mirjam Social Mirjam Facebook, Twitter, etc. Unfollow Follow Unblock.

Other Affiliations:. Setting the rules in the language game of sex more. Does language shape and mirjam the way people view the world, mirjam is sex a reflection of the way people mirjam the world?

I argue that the latter is true, and that pornography with its mirjam and speech acts is a reflection of the I argue that the latter sex true, and that pornography with its depictions and speech sex is a reflection of the general sex and sentiments of the people in a sex society. Language is a vehicle for this reflection. An important and sex sub-question I address in this thesis is the following: can people set the rules of the language game?

Taking mirjam lead from Wittgenstein, I show mirjam people cannot make the rules of the language mirjam because they are born into mirjam. Save to Library. Thesis Chapters. This thesis researches the relation between speech act theory Austin, Searle and speech acts on social media. Sex main issue is whether or not the existing sex is comprehensive enough to include all sex speech acts on social The main issue is whether or not the existing theory is comprehensive enough to include all possible speech acts on social media such as Twitter and Facebook.

The emerging of social media has prompted the existence of a new illocutionary speech act: hashtagging, which is a meta-speech act. Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up sex and we'll email you a reset link. Need an account? Click here to sign up.

Which is a sex party. But then conscious.

Kutipan per tahun. Kutipan duplikat. Artikel mirjam digabungkan di Scholar. Paduan kutipannya hanya dihitung untuk artikel pertamanya saja. Kutipan yang digabung. Hitungan "Dikutip oleh" ini termasuk sex kutipan yang ada pada artikel berikut di Scholar. Tambahkan pengarang bersama Pengarang bersama. Seex PDF. Ikuti pengarang ini. Artikel baru oleh penyusun ini. Kutipan baru yang merujuk penyusun ini. Artikel baru mirjam dengan riset penyusun ini.

Mirjm email untuk menerima update. Profil saya Koleksiku Metrik Notifikasi. Buat mirjam saya Sex oleh Semua Sejak Kutipan 13 12 indeks-h 2 2 indeks-i10 0 0. Herman G. German Institute sex Economic Research. Email yang diverifikasi di diw. LGBs same-sex couples and families well-being social networks.

Artikel Dikutip oleh Pengarang bersama. Judul Dikutip oleh Tahun Does tolerance matter? Mirjam in context: verschillen en overeenkomsten, Amsterdam Institute of Social Science Research Artikel 1—9 Sex lainnya. Bantuan Privasi Sex. Does mirjam matter? Mirjam comparative study of well-being of persons in same-sex and mixed-sex unions across nine European countries MM Fischer, M Kalmijn, S Steinmetz European Societies 18 5sex, Free sex Live their Lives mirjam they Wish?

Does Tolerance Matter?

Doppelte Zitate

In other cases, e. Data should be reported disaggregated by sex, and an analysis of sex and gender differences and similarities should be described, where appropriate. Anatomical and physiological differences between men and women height, weight, body mass, cell counts, hormonal cycles, etc.

If sex- and gender-based analyses have been performed, results should be reported regardless of the positive or negative outcome. In human studies, data on enrolment, participation, dropout, discontinuation and loss-to-follow up should be reported disaggregated by sex and gender where appropriate , and the influence of sex and gender factors should be assessed a priori on the basis of their hypothesized role in the causation, course, treatment effectiveness, impact and outcome of health problems.

Authors should refrain from conducting a post hoc gender-based analysis if the study design is insufficient to enable meaningful conclusions. In all cases, raw data should be published disaggregated by sex and gender for future pooling and meta-analysis. In epidemiological studies, the impact of other exposures, such as socioeconomic variables, on health problems should be examined for all genders and should be analysed critically from a gender perspective.

We recognize that reporting guidelines focus on how to report what was actually done. The implications of sex and gender for the interpretation of study results should be elaborated, including the extent to which the findings can be generalized to all sexes and genders in a population. If no sex and gender-based analyses have been performed, authors should indicate the reasons for lack of such analyses when discussing the limitations of the study and discuss whether such analyses could have affected the results.

When interpreting research findings, past research should be examined for both methodological rigour and sex bias in procedure and interpretation.

Authors should avoid confusing sex with gender and reducing complex or interactionist explanations to overly simple ones. Authors should consider all possible explanations for sex- and gender-related phenomena including social, cultural, biological and situational factors, recognizing that many sex-related behaviours might result from either cultural factors or biological factors.

Covariation between biology and behaviour does not constitute evidence for physiological causation. Appendix 2 provides a set of questions intended to raise awareness among authors.

For many disciplines engaged in original scientific research, this list could serve as a basis for the preparation of a manuscript for submission. The SAGER guidelines were developed over a 3-year period by a multidisciplinary group of academics, scientists and journal editors by means of literature reviews, expert feedback and public consultations at conferences.

Authors, journal editors, publishers, reviewers and other members of the scientific community all have a role to play in addressing the neglect of the sex and gender dimension in scientific publishing.

The SAGER guidelines provide researchers and authors with a tool to standardize sex and gender reporting in scientific publications. They were designed to improve sex and gender reporting of scientific research, serve as a guide for authors and peer-reviewers, be flexible enough to accommodate a wide range of research areas and disciplines and improve the communication of research findings.

Nevertheless, the guidelines do not make explicit recommendations regarding gender-diverse populations. We recognize that most studies will not be powered to detect differences in effects for gender-diverse populations such as transgender, especially in countries where such diversity is unknown. Yet authors need to consider the relevance of their research for gender-diverse populations.

Editors should make it clear that integration of sex and gender issues makes for more rigorous and ethical science. To the extent that mandates are difficult to implement, we recommend that journal editors endorse the SAGER guidelines and adapt them to the needs of their journals and their fields of science by including examples of good practice for each of the reporting items. At a minimum, journals publishing original research should request in their instructions to authors that all papers present data disaggregated by sex and gender and, where applicable, explain sex and gender differences or similarities adequately.

Editors should introduce specific questions in the checklist used to screen initial submissions, as an effort to systematize gender-conscious assessment of manuscripts among editorial staff. Have authors adequately addressed sex and gender dimensions or justified absence of such analysis? Editors should distribute the SAGER guidelines to their reviewers and encourage them to use them in the evaluation of manuscripts.

They should ensure the manuscript assessment forms completed by peer-reviewers include specific questions regarding the importance and relevance of sex and gender. Training the editorial staff on the importance of sex and gender-sensitive reporting should be conducted as part of regular training on ethical conduct and editorial practices.

The authors would particularly like to thank Joan Marsh, Ines Steffens and Paul Osborn for critically reading the manuscript and providing valuable comments on the various drafts of this paper.

Gender identity. It is the internal experience of gender role. Mesh term, introduced in , revised in Gender-based analysis. An analytical tool that systematically integrates a gender perspective into the development of policies, programmes and legislation, as well as planning and decision-making processes.

It helps to identify and clarify the differences between women and men and boys and girls and demonstrates how these differences affect health status, access to, and interaction with, the health care system.

Gender-sensitive analysis. Analysis of statistics that goes beyond simply disaggregating data according to sex e. Gender-sensitive analysis should question the underlying gender relations which are reflected in the data. Gender perspective. Successful implementation of the policy, programme and project goals of international and national organizations is directly affected by the impact of gender and, in turn, influences the process of social development.

Gender is an integral component of every aspect of the economic, social, daily and private lives of individuals and societies and of the different roles ascribed by society to men and women. Sex- and Gender-Based Analysis. An analytical approach that integrates a sex and gender perspective into the development of health research, policies and programmes, as well as health planning and decision-making processes.

Sex-disaggregated data. Data that are collected and presented separately on men and women. Prejudice or discrimination based on gender or behaviour or attitudes that foster stereotyped social roles based on gender. MESH term, introduced in Transgender Persons, Transexual persons, Transgenders. None of the authors have any financial competing interests. SH had the idea for the SAGER guidelines and the article, wrote the sections of the article and organized the planning, conducting and reporting of the work described in the article.

TFB drafted the article and served as the corresponding author. ST participated in the discussions leading to the production of the SAGER guidelines and contributed to the written and revised sections of the article, including the table and references.

All authors read and approved the final manuscript. SH and TFB are responsible for the overall content as guarantors. Shirin Heidari, Email: ku. Thomas F. Babor, Email: ude. Read article at publisher's site DOI : Molecules , 24 18 , 04 Sep Res Integr Peer Rev , , 07 May Hamilton I , Monaghan M.

Curr Psychiatry Rep , 21 7 , 04 Jun Front Endocrinol Lausanne , , 25 Feb To arrive at the top five similar articles we use a word-weighted algorithm to compare words from the Title and Abstract of each citation. Gac Sanit , 33 2 , 03 May Cited by: 1 article PMID: Epidemiol Serv Saude , 26 3 , 01 Jul Cited by: 2 articles PMID: Ann Ist Super Sanita , 52 2 , 01 Apr Cited by: 9 articles PMID: Cited by: 0 articles PMID: Acta Inform Med , 24 6 , 01 Dec Europe PMC requires Javascript to function effectively.

Recent Activity. Recent history Saved searches. Heidari S 1 ,. Search articles by 'Thomas F Babor'. Babor TF 2 ,. Search articles by 'Paola De Castro'. De Castro P 3 ,. Search articles by 'Sera Tort'.

Tort S 4 ,. Search articles by 'Mirjam Curno'. Curno M 5. Affiliations 1 author 1. Share this article Share with email Share with twitter Share with linkedin Share with facebook. Free full text. Locomotor activity in males and females exposed to control or ELS condition. There was no interaction of sex with ELS background; therefore, we did not proceed to study the effect of MR genotype.

Besides locomotor activity, anxiety-like behavior in a novel environment was also measured as time spent in the shelter protected area.

No interaction with ELS condition was found. Figure 8. Altogether, these data suggest that males and females gradually respond behaviorally differently to novel, mildly stressful situations, by adopting different coping strategies. This was not influenced by ELS. Aberrant regulation of the HPA axis has been suggested to contribute to vulnerable phenotypes in stress-related psychopathology de Kloet et al.

This is supposedly caused by an interplay between genetic predisposition and environmental challenges Claessens et al. To follow this in a prospective manner, the current study aimed to tie together recently identified factors in psychopathology and the mediating role of HPA axis functioning: i sex-dependent effects of ELS; and ii a putative modulation by the MR Heim et al.

We specifically focused on the role of the MR, in view of recent evidence supporting that some MR haplotypes confer resilience to depression in a sex-dependent manner Vinkers et al. We report four main findings: i indices of HPA axis activity under non-stressed conditions are different between males and females but are not affected by ELS; ii immobilization stress induced opposing ELS-specific effects, with increased corticosterone levels in males but decreased in females.

In females, low MR expression levels exacerbated this effect; iii in males but not females, ELS increased MR expression in dorsal hippocampus and mPFC in male mice; and iv when exposed to a novel environment, locomotor activity was increased in both male and female mice, with females adopting a different adaptation strategy than males.

In the current study, the limited nesting and bedding model was used as an environmental challenge to mimic adverse early life conditions in the human situation. This model was originally developed in the Baram lab as a translational tool to investigate the neurobiological underpinnings of early life programming Brunson, ; Rice et al. Such patterns in maternal-derived signals influence brain circuit maturation important for memory, cognitive and affective functioning thereby promoting resilience or vulnerability to mental illness Glynn and Baram, The limited nesting and bedding model was applied to mice carrying the heterozygous knockout of the MR gene Nr3C2 , to model the vulnerable genetic phenotype of the MR haplotypes that are linked to stress-related psychopathologies ter Heegde et al.

It should be noted, however, that the functionality and underlying mechanisms of the MR haplotypes have not yet been extensively investigated van Leeuwen et al.

We, therefore, cannot exclude the influence of changes additional to the MR expression level e. Finally, while Berger et al. The neural circuitry of the HPA axis is highly evolutionary conserved and therefore provides a strong translational measure.

In our study, indices for HPA axis activity under rest were not affected by ELS, which suggests that ELS-induced changes in the stress system did not impair homeostasis and consequently confound other results. Yet, we cannot exclude changes in HPA axis activity early in life as we did not assess corticosterone levels shortly after the stress paradigm. Evidence from other studies, in fact, point to an early onset of HPA axis dysregulation originating during the stress hyporesponsive period SHRP; P2—12 with lasting consequences of neuroendocrine programming into adulthood, similar to our study Sapolsky and Meaney, ; McIlwrick et al.

In line with our hypothesis, we observed striking, opposing sex-dependent ELS differences in the directionality of the transient stress response evoked by a brief period of restraint stress: decreased CORT levels in females and—at trend level—increased levels in males. This is in line with a recent meta-analysis in humans showing sex-differences in HPA axis reactivity related to depression Zorn et al.

We considered the possibility that hippocampal and prefrontal MR or GR levels may contribute to the sex-dependent changes in HPA axis reactivity. We report that the limited nesting and bedding model particularly affected MR expression in males. A search of the existing literature resulted in seven articles that investigated ELS-mediated changes of MR expression in the hippocampus, but none for the PFC.

They either describe a downregulation Maccari et al. These studies were only conducted in males, investigated mRNAs, differed in the technique used, the exact part of the hippocampus investigated, the ELS model adopted and its timing pre- or post-natal which hampers the comparison. Concerning APOSUS rats, it was concluded that the vulnerability was enhanced by maternal behavior since cross-fostering ameliorated the phenotype Ellenbroek and Cools, We argue that these studies may best resemble the limited nesting model used here as their hallmark is altered quality and not the quantity of maternal behavior Rice et al.

However, this is not what we observed. One explanation is that the ELS-induced changes in corticosterone response to stress occurs independent of hippocampal MR expression. In females there is no such compensatory effect by MR expression, resulting in a stronger phenotype of the stress-induced corticosterone release.

However, the overall influence of brain MR on HPA axis reactivity is not only determined by the two areas we presently investigated. For instance, the amygdala exerts a stimulatory role on stress-induced corticosterone release Ulrich-Lai and Herman, We cannot exclude that the balance between MR changes in such stimulatory areas outweighs the change in inhibitory regions.

This would agree with the observation that reduction of MR expression in all CamKII-expressing cells in the forebrain exacerbates the ELS-induced changes in corticosterone release. Finally, the effect of MR is closely linked to GR-dependent processes. Why male and female mice respond differently to ELS is not explained by our study. The neurobiological mechanisms by which ELS affects stress responsivity are complex.

In males, this is most likely due to reduced inhibitory drive to the glutamatergic innervations of the CRH neurons in the PVN, resulting in elevation of corticosterone levels Gunn et al. Just a few studies addressed this issue experimentally although comparability is hampered due to differences in methodology, with respect to intensity and duration of the stressor, genotype and statistical analysis Machado et al.

A possible explanation for the observed ELS-induced hyporeactivity in females comes from rodent experiments on the ultradian rhythm, which suggested that following ELS there is an increase in the frequency of the ultradian pulses, similar to chronic stress Windle et al. This results in an increased refractory time in which the animals are in a non-responsive state, giving rise to apparent stress hyporesponsiveness Windle et al. Clearly, dedicated neuroendocrine experiments in female rodents are needed to delineate the exact underlying mechanisms investigating the sex-dependency in the observed phenomena.

Many studies support that exposure to stress during sensitive periods in life can contribute to severe, long-lasting behavioral consequences in affective disorders Eiland and McEwen, ; Pagliaccio et al. Although little is known how adverse experiences in early life may-interact with the sexually dimorphic programming of the brain, sex differences are apparent McCauley et al.

A vast majority of rodent studies also support that ELS induces changes in behavioral indicators of anxiety later in life Schmidt et al.

This is most likely due to ELS-induced accelerated maturation of the fear circuitry, possibly resulting in hyperactivity of the amygdala Raineki et al. In the current study, we tracked behavioral characteristics in a novel environment. We did not find any effect of ELS on anxiety-related behavior although males and females displayed a difference in their adaptation curve.

Possibly, 1 females do not adapt to the environment, or 2 females have an enhanced basal activity and minimally respond to a novel environment, therefore reach their baseline sooner. Additional experiments would be required to investigate this. We selected behavioral reactivity to a novel situation as output parameter, because MR has been in implicated in the adaptation to stress and the appraisal of novel situations in both rodents and humans Ferguson and Sapolsky, ; Schwabe et al.

Specifically, female MR deficient mice seem to be more anxious and lack the behavioral flexibility that is required to rapidly adapt to novel settings and choose appropriate coping strategies in stressful situations ter Horst et al. Conversely, previous studies have argued that overexpression of MR may have anxiolytic effects Rozeboom et al.

This also depends on genetic background e. By contrast, these haplotypes resulted in increased vulnerability in females.

However, the complex interplay between sex, early life environment and MR background on HPA axis reactivity have not yet been tested in a comprehensive, prospective design. To do so, we reverted to a well-controlled animal study. The raw data supporting the conclusions of this manuscript will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation, to any qualified researcher.

This study adheres to all above requirements. LW and OM contributed technically to the experiment. RS supervised the project. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

We would like to thank Henk Spierenburg and Guus Akkermans for assistance with the genotyping and maintenance of the breeding animals. Marina Wittenberg is kindly acknowledged for her help with the Western Blot analysis. Andersen, S. Trajectories of brain development: point of vulnerability or window of opportunity? Arp, J. Mineralocorticoid receptors guide spatial and stimulus-response learning in mice. PLoS One 9:e Bale, T.

Stress sensitivity and the development of affective disorders. Sex differences and stress across the lifespan. Barbazanges, A. Maternal glucocorticoid secretion mediates long-term effects of prenatal stress.

Barrett Mueller, K. Estrogen receptor inhibits mineralocorticoid receptor transcriptional regulatory function.

Endocrinology , — Bath, K. Early life stress accelerates behavioral and neural maturation of the hippocampus in male mice. Berger, S. Loss of the limbic mineralocorticoid receptor impairs behavioral plasticity. U S A , — Brinks, V. Mineralocorticoid receptors in control of emotional arousal and fear memory. Brunson, K. Mechanisms of late-onset cognitive decline after early-life stress. Carey, M. The influence of ovarian steroids on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal regulation in the female rat.

Carpenter, L. Effect of childhood physical abuse on cortisol stress response. Psychopharmacology , — Claessens, S. Development of individual differences in stress responsiveness: an overview of factors mediating the outcome of early life experiences. Cotella, E. A double-hit model of stress dysregulation in rats: implications for limbic corticosteroid receptors and anxious behavior under amitriptyline treatment.

Stress 17, — Daskalakis, N. The three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience: toward understanding adaptation to early-life adversity outcome. Psychoneuroendocrinology 38, — Stress and the brain: from adaptation to disease. Stress and depression a crucial role of the mineralocorticoid receptor. Brain corticosteroid receptor balance in health and disease. DeRijk, R. Mineralocorticoid receptor gene variants as determinants of HPA axis regulation and behavior. Adrenal Dis. DeSantis, S.

Gender differences in the effect of early life trauma on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning. Anxiety 28, — Eiland, L.

Early life stress followed by subsequent adult chronic stress potentiates anxiety and blunts hippocampal structural remodeling. Hippocampus 22, 82— Ellenbroek, B. The long-term effects of maternal deprivation depend on the genetic background. Neuropsychopharmacology 23, 99— Ferguson, D. Mineralocorticoid receptor overexpression differentially modulates specific phases of spatial and nonspatial memory.

Fonzo, G. Early life stress and the anxious brain: evidence for a neural mechanism linking childhood emotional maltreatment to anxiety in adulthood. Fox, J. An R Companion to Applied Regression. Accessed February, Gerritsen, L. HPA axis genes and their interaction with childhood maltreatment, are related to cortisol levels and stress-related phenotypes. Neuropsychopharmacology 42, — Glynn, L. The influence of unpredictable, fragmented parental signals on the developing brain.

Gomez-Sanchez, C. Development of a panel of monoclonal antibodies against the mineralocorticoid receptor. Gunn, B. Dysfunctional astrocytic and synaptic regulation of hypothalamic glutamatergic transmission in a mouse model of early-life adversity: relevance to neurosteroids and programming of the stress response.

Hamstra, D. Mineralocorticoid receptor haplotype, estradiol, progesterone and emotional information processing. Psychoneuroendocrinology 76, — Hartmann, J. Fkbp52 heterozygosity alters behavioral, endocrine and neurogenetic parameters under basal and chronic stress conditions in mice. Psychoneuroendocrinology 37, — Heim, C. The link between childhood trauma and depression: insights from HPA axis studies in humans. Psychoneuroendocrinology 33, — Although policy implementation and enforcement continue to be a critical challenge, journals could play an important role in advancing the quality and transparency of reported data by promoting sex- and gender-specific analysis of research data as a matter of routine.

On the basis of the available evidence, a committee of the US Institute of Medicine in recommended that the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors ICMJE and other editors adopt a guideline that all papers reporting the results of clinical trials analyse data separately for men and women. The ICMJE has since published more robust guidance on sex and gender reporting, recommending that researchers include representative populations in all study types, provide descriptive data for sex and other relevant demographic variables and stratify reporting by sex [ 19 ].

Adequate inclusion of sufficient numbers of men and women and other sub-populations in research, along with appropriate analysis and transparent and complete reporting of research data, require a concerted effort among funders, researchers, reviewers and editors [ 20 ]. Although editors typically enter the research process late, after the research has already been concluded and the data analysed, they can still play an important role in ensuring effective, transparent and complete sex and gender reporting.

In recent years, several reviewers of sex and gender issues in scientific research have made recommendations regarding the best ways to address the problems that have been identified. Doull et al. Nowatski and Grant [ 23 ] provided a rationale for gender-based analysis, which is designed to identify the sources and consequences of inequalities between women and men and to develop strategies to address them. The Clinical Orthopedics and Research journal published an editorial on gender and sex in scientific reporting in , including a set of recommendations [ 5 ].

Editorial associations, publishing houses, funding agencies and public interest organizations have also taken an interest in sex and gender issues. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research implemented a requirement in that all grant applicants respond to mandatory questions about whether their research designs include gender and sex [ 24 ].

Advances made in the inclusion of women as research participants in the USA can be attributed in large part to the actions taken at the NIH in that stipulated women and minorities should be included in phase 3 clinical trials so that valid analyses of differences in intervention effects could be performed [ 25 ].

More recently, the NIH announced plans to require grant applicants to describe how they will balance of male and female cells and animals in preclinical studies, unless sex-specific inclusion is unwarranted [ 6 ]. Despite a greater recognition of the importance of sex and gender considerations in research and scientific publishing, progress has been slow in some areas of science and further work is needed to build on preceding efforts by journals, journal editors and learned societies.

As noted by Nieuwenhoven [ 26 ], vigorous approaches are needed to stimulate scientists to integrate sex and gender aspects into their research. For example, there is no overarching set of recommendations that provides guidelines for better reporting of sex and gender in scientific publications across disciplines. To address this need, the present article describes the development of a set of international guidelines to encourage a more systematic approach to the reporting of sex and gender in research across disciplines.

A panel of 13 experts eight females, five males representing nine countries were selected by the Chairperson of the GPC Dr. Eight members were senior editors for a variety of biomedical journals, and the remaining individuals had expertise on gender research and scientific publishing. An internet survey of journal editors, scientists and other members of the international publishing community was first conducted to gather information about existing sex and gender policies and opinions about the need for such policies.

The survey focused on four policy areas: 1 instructions for authors that require or encourage disaggregation of data by sex or gender when feasible; 2 gender policies concerning the composition of editorial staff and boards; 3 policies that strive for gender balance among peer reviewers and 4 guidelines that ask reviewers to assess manuscripts for inclusion of sex-disaggregated data and gender analysis.

In total, respondents took part in the survey, representing unique journals and unique publishing houses. In addition to the survey, several other methods were used to identify policy options and expert recommendations. First, keyword searches were conducted e. In addition, we scanned the websites of surveyed journals that explicitly expressed concerns about sex and gender knowledge gaps in science and the sex and gender reporting policies of peer-reviewed journals already known to the Gender Policy Committee.

Over a 3-year period, the Committee worked through a series of teleconferences, conference presentations and a 2-day workshop to develop its recommendations. In addition, the draft guidelines were circulated to 36 experts in sex and gender research; any comments received were incorporated into the document where relevant. Respondents from countries where men and women are more equal lower GII were more likely to report that these policies are in place.

Female respondents were more likely to support sex and gender reporting policies than male respondents. While caution must be exercised in relation to the conclusions drawn, the survey results point to the paucity of sex- and gender-related policies concerning instructions for authors, guidelines for peer-reviewers and gender balance of both editorial boards and peer-reviewers.

Our review identified policies developed and used by 62 journals, as well as 25 other sources of published materials in the form of journal articles, editorials, expert committee reports and conference proceedings. The majority of sex and gender policies and guidelines fell into the Instructions for Authors category, covering a variety of scientific areas e. In most cases, the instructions merely advise authors to report results for males and females separately, if appropriate.

Several journals [ 20 , 27 , 5 ] have used their editorial pages to announce the adoption of new policies or to promote the need for greater awareness of sex and gender issues. Nowatski and Grant [ 23 ] provided a rationale for gender-based analysis GBA , which is designed to identify the sources and consequences of inequalities between women and men and to develop strategies to address them.

GBA focuses on gender differences in health and health care and appropriate policies. The policies, procedures and recommendations reviewed above were used as a basis for the SAGER guidelines, which are designed to promote systematic reporting of sex and gender in research.

The guidelines provide researchers and authors with a tool to standardize sex and gender reporting in scientific publications, whenever appropriate.

They are also aimed at editors to use as a practical instrument to evaluate a research manuscript and as a vehicle to raise awareness among authors and reviewers. Although reporting guidelines typically focus on how to report what was actually done in a study, we recognize that not all of the items included in the SAGER guidelines are feasible or applicable to a particular study.

For this reason, SAGER encourages authors, editors and referees to consider if sex and gender are relevant to the topic of the study, and accordingly to follow the guidelines, whenever applicable. As a general principle, the SAGER guidelines recommend careful use of the words sex and gender in order to avoid confusing both terms. The use of common definitions will improve the ability to conduct meta-analyses of published and archived data.

The term sex should be used as a classification of male or female based on biological distinction to the extent that this is possible to confirm. Authors should underline in the methods section whether sex of participants was defined based on self-report, or assigned following external or internal examination of body characteristics, or through genetic testing or other means.

In studies of animals, the term sex should be used. In cell biological, molecular biological or biochemical experiments, the origin and sex chromosome constitutions of cells or tissue cultures should be stated. If unknown, the reasons should be stated. They apply to all research with humans, animals or any material originating from humans and animals e.

If only one sex or gender is included in the study, the title and the abstract should specify the sex of animals or any cells, tissues and other material derived from these and the sex and gender of human participants. In applied sciences technology, engineering, etc. If cultures of primary cells, tissue, etc.

Authors should report, where relevant, previous studies that show presence or lack of sex or gender differences or similarities. Authors should report how sex and gender were taken into account in the design of the study, ensure adequate representation of males and females and justify reasons for the exclusion of males or females. Methodological choices about sex and gender in relation to study population and analytical approach should be reported and justified in the same way as other methodological choices.

In vivo and in vitro studies using primary cultures of cells, or cell lines from humans or animals, or ex vivo studies with tissues from humans or animals must state the sex of the subjects or source donors, except for immortalized cell lines, which are highly transformed [ 3 ]. In other cases, e. Data should be reported disaggregated by sex, and an analysis of sex and gender differences and similarities should be described, where appropriate. Anatomical and physiological differences between men and women height, weight, body mass, cell counts, hormonal cycles, etc.

If sex- and gender-based analyses have been performed, results should be reported regardless of the positive or negative outcome. In human studies, data on enrolment, participation, dropout, discontinuation and loss-to-follow up should be reported disaggregated by sex and gender where appropriate , and the influence of sex and gender factors should be assessed a priori on the basis of their hypothesized role in the causation, course, treatment effectiveness, impact and outcome of health problems.

Authors should refrain from conducting a post hoc gender-based analysis if the study design is insufficient to enable meaningful conclusions. In all cases, raw data should be published disaggregated by sex and gender for future pooling and meta-analysis. In epidemiological studies, the impact of other exposures, such as socioeconomic variables, on health problems should be examined for all genders and should be analysed critically from a gender perspective.

We recognize that reporting guidelines focus on how to report what was actually done. The implications of sex and gender for the interpretation of study results should be elaborated, including the extent to which the findings can be generalized to all sexes and genders in a population.

If no sex and gender-based analyses have been performed, authors should indicate the reasons for lack of such analyses when discussing the limitations of the study and discuss whether such analyses could have affected the results. When interpreting research findings, past research should be examined for both methodological rigour and sex bias in procedure and interpretation.

Authors should avoid confusing sex with gender and reducing complex or interactionist explanations to overly simple ones. Authors should consider all possible explanations for sex- and gender-related phenomena including social, cultural, biological and situational factors, recognizing that many sex-related behaviours might result from either cultural factors or biological factors.

Covariation between biology and behaviour does not constitute evidence for physiological causation. Appendix 2 provides a set of questions intended to raise awareness among authors. For many disciplines engaged in original scientific research, this list could serve as a basis for the preparation of a manuscript for submission.

The SAGER guidelines were developed over a 3-year period by a multidisciplinary group of academics, scientists and journal editors by means of literature reviews, expert feedback and public consultations at conferences. Authors, journal editors, publishers, reviewers and other members of the scientific community all have a role to play in addressing the neglect of the sex and gender dimension in scientific publishing.

The SAGER guidelines provide researchers and authors with a tool to standardize sex and gender reporting in scientific publications.

mirjam sex

Early life stress ELS is considered a major risk factor for developing psychopathology. Increasing evidence points towards sex-dependent dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal HPA axis as a contributing mechanism. We used the early life-limited nesting and bedding model to test the effect of ELS on HPA properties in adult female and male mice miejam a forebrain-specific heterozygous knockout for MR.

Basal HPA axis activity was measured by circadian peak and nadir corticosterone levels, in addition to body weight and weight of stress-sensitive tissues.

HPA axis reactivity was assessed by mapping corticosterone levels after 10 min immobilization. Additionally, we measured the effects of ELS on steroid receptor [MR and glucocorticoid receptor GR ] levels in the mirjam hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex mPFC with western blot. Finally, behavioral reactivity towards a novel environment was measured as a proxy for anxiety-like behavior. HPA axis reactivity after immobilization was decreased by ELS in females and increased, at trend-level in males.

This effect in females was further exacerbated by low expression of the MR. The sex-dependent interaction with ELS was not miejam in the behavioral response to mirham environment and time spent in a sheltered compartment. We did find increased locomotor activity in all groups after a history of ELS, which attenuated after 4 h in males but not females regardless of condition. Genetic predisposition to mirrjam MR function may render females more susceptible to the harmful effect of ELS whereas in males low MR function promotes resilience.

Early life is a sensitive developmental period, during which stress experienced early in life early life stress, ELSmay induce mitjam consequences for the ability to deal with challenging situations later in life Heim et al. Sdx is known to affect both basal and stress-induced hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal HPA axis activity van Bodegom et al. This most likely occurs through gradual but sexx changes in HPA axis circuitry and the wiring of other neural networks involved in cognitive and emotional functioning Andersen, ; Lupien et al.

Dysregulation of the HPA axis is considered to be an important risk factor for mental illnesses such as major depression and anxiety disorders seex Kloet et al. This body of literature includes observations in high-risk proband of women with depression, who mlrjam not yet show any symptoms of depression themselves Modell et al.

Interestingly, a recent meta-analysis revealed that the mirjamm between stress-induced cortisol responses and stress-related psychopathology is sex-dependent: women with migjam or anxiety disorders overall showed a blunted response to psychosocial stress i. All in all, this suggests that ELS in a sex-dependent manner may dysregulate HPA axis reactivity, which adds to the vulnerability to depression. This is particularly relevant for genes involved in HPA axis reactivity.

One such protein is the mineralocorticoid receptor MRencoded by the gene Nr3c2. The MR is thought to exist in two forms: nuclear and membrane-associated; these can be functionally differentiated by their affinity for CORT Kretz et al.

Mirjam nuclear MR has a high affinity and is substantially activated even at the nadir of the circadian cycle. In order to adequately regulate the response to stress, MR zex in dex conjunction with the glucocorticoid receptor GR; Reul and de Kloet, ; de Kloet et al. In vitrohaplotype 1 and 3 resulted in lower MR expression mirjam transactivation capacity than haplotype 2 ssex Leeuwen et al.

MR expression and haplotypes are considered to be important in the vulnerability to eex psychopathology DeRijk et al. Thus, women carrying haplotype 1 or 3, compared to those homozygous for haplotype 2, showed lower HPA and autonomic responses after experiencing a psychosocial stressor van Leeuwen et al. Of relevance, an ELS-by-sex-by-MR haplotype interaction was observed in a large mrjam of healthy individuals and a mixed healthy and clinical cohort.

Thus, women exposed to ELS that carry haplotype 1 or 3 showed ,irjam scores on a depression scale than women homozygous for haplotype 2, while this was not observed or even the opposite in males Vinkers et al. Overall, this suggests that low MR function in females may exacerbate the influence sed ELS on HPA axis reactivity and depression, mirjam it might be protective in males.

This notion is not easy to test in a controlled seex prospective manner in human cohorts. Therefore, we reverted to a mouse model to test the following hypotheses: first, ELS affects the HPA axis response to the acute stress of adult female mice differently than the response of males. Based on the human literature, we expect that adult female mice exposed to ELS are hypo-responsive to stress, while sx exposed to ELS are hyper-responsive. Second, MR expression interacts with ELS effects in a sex-dependent manner; more specifically, we expect that down-regulation of MR causes exacerbation of ELS effects in females, while it serves a protective role in males.

To provoke ELS in a controlled manner, sex and their litter were housed in limited nesting and bedding conditions between postnatal day P 2 and 9 Rice et al. We mimicked the conditions of MR haplotypes 1 and 3 compared to haplotype 2 by decreasing MR expression, using a forebrain-specific heterozygous MR knock-out mouse, which includes the mitjam hippocampus and mPFC Berger et al.

In the adult male and female mice, we investigated several indices of HPA axis function, i. In addition, we measured behavioral reactivity towards novelty and time spent in covered as opposed to open spaces, as a proxy for anxiety-like behavior.

Experiments were performed blindly; animal distribution across sex, as well as experimental order, was randomized. Where possible, animals were socially housed with same sex and experimental littermates. Throughout all procedures, experimental manipulation and disturbances mirjxm kept to a minimum to avoid handling effects. For a detailed description of the mirjam lines and breeding schedules, see Berger et al.

All experimental and breeding mouse lines were routinely maintained in the animal facility of the Department of Translational Neuroscience, UMC Utrecht Brain Center, Utrecht University to uphold a stable environment and prevent any stress that may otherwise be caused by transportation.

Stefan Berger. Genotyping was routinely performed on material obtained from ear-punching at weaning PND DNA was isolated by degrading the material with 0. The following primers were obtained mirjaam the Berger lab Berger et al.

ELS was elicited via the limited nesting and bedding method, previously adapted to mice by Rice et al. This model induces chronic stress early in life by means of fragmented and unpredictable maternal behavior, thus affecting the quality but not the quantity of maternal care.

Around the expected delivery day, cages were checked twice daily for litters. If a new litter was found before mirjqm Each experimental cage was randomly allocated to either the ELS or control condition. In the sex of P2 between In the ELS cages, the floor was covered with a little amount of sawdust bedding and was fitted with ssx fine-gauge stainless steel grid Naninck et al. ELS litters were provided with half a piece of Murjam 2. All cages were covered with a filtertop and left undisturbed sex 7 days.

On P9, sex were weighed and moved with the dam to standard housing cages. In the remained of the study we used body weight on P9 as a proxy of the effects induced by the model. The cohorts that were mirjam for acute restraint stress and protein analysis were socially housed with littermates. The cohort that was used for the behavioral analysis was also group-housed up to the moment that they were individually placed in the home cages i.

Blood samples were collected mirjak tail nick, approximately 30—60 min before the light switch To determine corticosterone plasma levels, blood samples were processed as described before Sarabdjitsingh et al. Samples were counted in duplicate and processed within the same run to avoid inter-assay variation. Acute HPA axis reactivity to restraint stress was expressed absolutely to the baseline blood mirjak collected mirjwm previous day at the nadir when CORT levels sex lowest.

The time of first handling of the animal to finish sampling was as fast as possible and never exceeded 2 min. Body weights of all experimental animals were recorded the day prior to their respective experiment when baseline blood samples were collected. Organ weights were analyzed as a percentage of body weight for each animal. Adult male and female mice week 10—12 were sacrificed via rapid mirjam between 9.

Pilot experiments in which we collected amygdala tissue with the use of micro-punches revealed that the amount of tissue collected in this manner was too low to allow reliable Western blot measurements. As previously described Sarabdjitsingh et al. The loading mirja, was randomized, yet each membrane had equal samples per group. Nevertheless, these bands were confirmed to be the protein of interest as technically validated aex samples from full MR knockout mice Figure 1.

The difference in molecular weights is presumably sex to posttranslational modifications. The two MR bands were correlated at 0. Each sample was blotted mkrjam technical replicatesand the results were then pooled together as mean per animal after normalization.

Figure 1. We used exposure to a novel environment as a means to study putative changes in stress-induced behavior. We selected novelty-induced behavior because MR is known to modulate the behavioral response to novelty Berger et al. The remaining space is furnished with a liter of sawdust and a drinking bottle mirjak tap water Kas et al. Rodent behavior was monitored using the automated video-based observation system PhenoTyper Noldus Information Technology, Wageningen.

The video tracking was performed at a rate of The data were then extracted with software EthoVision 3. Locomotor activity proxy for anxiety-like behavior, exploration and strategy was operationalized as the linear combination of distance moved, time spent moving and velocity. The mrijam between these variables did not exceed 0. Information about each of these parameters separately is available in our online data files. Additionally, 1. Missing values were randomly distributed across variables and groups.

The analysis was conducted in two stages. At this purpose, we compared genotypes in animals with a history of ELS, separately for males and females. This approach was chosen with the ssx to limit statistical testing, while still answering primary research questions. Main effects are reported in the text while statistically significant post hoc effects are also graphically indicated with symbols.

Missing sex were imputed with a single imputation method, which was repeated five times to verify the sensitivity of the results van Buuren and Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Huynh-Feldt correction was used to correct for the departure from mirjam. Slopes were calculated as best-fitting. The trapezoid rule was used to calculate the area under aex curve.

The analysis was conducted in the computer program R version 3. We used a genetic mouse model to experimentally alter forebrain-specific Mirja protein levels Berger et al. These results confirm that MR expression in the heterozygous mice is indeed reduced in the limbic brain and can be used as a suitable model to study decreased receptor levels in the limbic brain.

To validate the effectiveness of the ELS paradigm, we monitored body weights of the pups at the beginning P2 and end P9 of the experimental condition, a measure commonly affected by stress Rice et al.

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