Islam’s Punitive Line on Homosexuality

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Attitudes forr lesbian, gay, punishment and transgender LGBT homosexuality, and their experiences in the Muslim worldhave been influenced by its religious, legal, social, political, and cultural history. The Quran narrates the story of the "people of Lot " destroyed by punishmejt wrath of God because they engaged in lustful carnal acts between men. However, homosexual relationships were punishjent tolerated in pre-modern Homosexuwlity societies[9] [10] and historical records suggest that these laws were invoked infrequently, mainly in cases of rape or other "exceptionally blatant infringement on public morals ".

For recent times, extreme prejudice against homosexuals persists, both socially and legally, in much of the Islamic world, exacerbated by increasingly conservative attitudes and the rise punishment Islamist movements. The Quran contains several allusions to homosexual activity, which has prompted considerable exegetical and legal commentary over the centuries. Most surely you come to males in lust besides females; nay you are an extravagant people.

And the answer of his people was no other than that they said: Turn them out of your town, surely they are a people who seek to purify themselves. So We delivered him and his followers, except his wife; she was of those who remained behind. And We rained upon them a rain; consider then what was the end of the guilty.

Later exegetical literature built on these verses as writers attempted to give their own punishment as to what went iislam and there was general agreement among exegetes that the "abomination" alluded to by the Quranic passages was attempted sodomy specifically anal intercourse between men.

Only one passage in the Quran prescribes a islak legal position. It is not restricted to homosexual behaviour, however, and deals more generally with zina illicit sexual intercourse : [49]. And as for the two who homosexjality guilty of indecency from among you, give them both a punishment; then if they repent and amend, turn aside from them; surely Allah is oft-returning to mercythe Merciful.

Most exegetes hold that these verses refer to illicit heterosexual relationships, although a minority view attributed to the Mu'tazilite scholar Abu Muslim al-Isfahani jslam them as referring hommosexuality homosexual relations.

This view was widely homosexuality by medieval scholars, but has found some acceptance in modern times. Some Quranic verses describing the hojosexuality refer to "immortal boys"or "young men" who serve wine to the blessed. Although the tafsir literature does not interpret this as a homoerotic allusion, the connection was made in other literary genres, mostly humorously.

With smooth hands and fingers dyed with henna And with long hair of golden curls around his cheeks I ispam a lad who is like the beautiful lads of paradise And his eyes are big and beautiful. Jurists of the Hanafi school took up the question seriously, considering, but ultimately rejecting the suggestion that homosexual pleasures were, like wine, forbidden in this world but enjoyed in the afterlife.

The hadith sayings and actions attributed to Muhammad show that homosexual behaviour was not unknown in seventh-century Arabia. From Abu Musa al-Ash'ari, homosexualiyy Prophet p. While there are no reports relating to homosexuality in the best known hadith collections of Bukhari and Muslimother canonical punishment record a number of condemnations homosexuality the "act of the people of Lot" male-to-male anal intercourse.

Narrated by Abdullah ibn Abbas: The Prophet said: If you find anyone doing as Lot's people did, kill homosexuality one who does it, and the one to whom it homosexuality done. Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas: Punisjment a man who is not married is seized committing sodomy he will be stoned homosexualjty death.

Ibn al-Jawzi — writing in the 12th century claimed that Muhammad had hommosexuality "sodomites" in several hadith, and had recommended the death penalty for both the active and passive partners in homosexual acts. It was narrated that Ibn 'Abbaas said: "The Prophet said: " Ahmad narrated from Ibn 'Abbas that the Prophet of Allah said: "May Allah curse the one who does the action of the people of Lot, may Allah curse the one who does the action of the fpr of For three times.

Al-Nuwayri — in his Fo reports that Muhammad is "alleged to have said what he feared punishment for his community were the practices of the people of Lot he seems to have expressed the same islam in regard to wine and female seduction. It was narrated that Jabir: "The Prophet said: homosdxuality is nothing I fear for my followers more than the deed of the people of Lot.

Other hadiths seem to permit homoerotic feelings as long as they are not translated into action. In addition, there is a number of "purported but punishhment inconsistent reports" athar of punishments of sodomy ordered by early caliphs.

There iislam, however, fewer hadith mentioning homosexual behavior in women; [57] [58] but punishment if any for lesbianism was not clarified. In Islam, the term mukhannathun is used to describe gender-variant people, usually male-to-female transgender. Neither this term nor the equivalent for "eunuch" occurs in the Quran, but the term does appear in punishment Hadith, the sayings of Muhammad, which homoseexuality a secondary status to the central text.

Moreover, within Islamthere is a tradition on the elaboration and refinement of extended religious doctrines through scholarship. This doctrine contains a passage by the scholar and hadith collector An-Nawawi :. A puniishment is the one "male" who carries in his movements, in his appearance and in his language the characteristics of a woman. There are two types; the first is the one in whom these characteristics are innate, he did not put them on by himself, and therein is no guilt, no blame and no shame, as long as he does not perform punishmet illicit act or exploit it for money prostitution etc.

The second type acts like a woman out of immoral purposes and he is the sinner and blameworthy. The hadith collection of Bukhari compiled in the 9th century from earlier oral traditions includes a report regarding mukhannathuneffeminate men who were granted access to secluded women's quarters and engaged homosexuslity other non- normative gender behavior: [7] This hadiths attributed to Muhammad's wivesa mukhannath in question expressed his appreciation of a homosexulity body and described it for the benefit of another man.

Narrated by Abdullah ibn Abbas: The Prophet cursed effeminate men; those men who are in the similitude assume the manners of women and those women who assume the manners of men, and he said, "Turn them fkr of your houses. According to Everett Rowson, none ielam the sources state that Muhammad banished more than two mukhannathunand it is not clear homosexualiry what extent the action was taken because of their breaking of punishment rules in itself or because of the "perceived damage to social institutions from their activities as matchmakers and their corresponding access to women".

According to traditional Fo law, homosexual activity cannot occur in a legal manner because it takes place outside marriage and between partners of the same sex. The paucity of concrete prescriptions to be derived from hadith and the contradictory nature of information about the actions of early authorities resulted in lack of agreement among classical jurists as to how homosexual activity should be treated.

For unclear reasons, the treatment of homosexuality in Twelver Shia jurisprudence for generally harsher than in Sunni fiqh, while Zaydi and Isma'ili Shia jurists took positions similar to the Sunnis. Since a hadd punishment for zina requires testimony from four witnesses to the actual act of penetration or a confession from the accused for four times, the legal criteria for the prescribed harsh homosexuality of islaj acts were very difficult to fulfill.

Documented instances of prosecution for homosexual acts are rare, and those which followed legal procedure prescribed by Islamic law are even rarer.

Puniahment Kecia Ali's book, she cites that "contemporary scholars disagree sharply about the Qur'anic perspective on same-sex intimacy. Many Muslim scholars have followed a "don't ask, don't tell" policy in regards to homosexuality in Islam, by treating the subject with passivity. Egyptian Islamist journalist Muhammad Jalal Kishk also found no punishment for homosexual acts prescribed in the Quran, regarding the hadith hkmosexuality homosexuality it as poorly attested.

He did not approve of such acts, but believed that Muslims who abstained from sodomy would be rewarded by sex with youthful punishjent in paradise. Kutty, who teaches comparative law and legal reasoning, also wrote that many Islamic scholars [71] have "even argued that homosexual tendencies themselves were not haram [prohibited] but had to be suppressed for the public good".

He claimed that this may not be "what the LGBTQ community wants to hear", but that, "it reveals that even islam Islamic jurists struggled with this issue and had a more sophisticated attitude than many contemporary Muslims". Kutty, who in the past wrote in support of allowing Islamic principles in dispute resolution, also noted that "most Muslims have no problem extending full human rights to those—even Muslims—who live together 'in sin'".

He argued that it therefore seems hypocritical to deny fundamental rights to same-sex couples. Moreover, he concurred with Islamic legal scholar Mohamed Fadel [72] in arguing that this is not about changing Islamic marriage nikahbut islsm making "sure that all citizens have access to the same kinds of public benefits".

Some modern day Muslim scholars, such as Scott For al-Haqq Kugle, argue for a different interpretation of the Lot narrative focusing not on the sexual act but on the infidelity of the tribe and their rejection of Lot's Prophethood. According to Kugle, "where the Qur'an treats same-sex acts, it condemns them only so far as they are exploitive or violent. One level is "genetic inheritance.

One the basis of this islwm of the Qur'an, Kugle asserts that homosexuality is "caused by divine will," so "homosexuals have no rational choice in their internal disposition to be attracted to same-sex mates. In a book, Aisha Geissinger [77] writes that there are "apparently irreconcilable Muslim standpoints on same-sex desires and acts," all of which claim "interpretative authenticity.

The Lot story is interpreted as condemning pujishment and inhospitality rather than today's consensual same-sex relationships. In their book Islamic Law and Muslim Same-Sex UnionsJunaid Jahangir and Hussein Abdullatif argue that interpretations which view the For narrative of the people of Lot and the derived classical notion of liwat as applying to same-sex relationships reflect the sociocultural norms and medical knowledge of societies that produced those interpretations.

They further argue that the notion of liwat is compatible with the Quranic narrative, but not with the contemporary understanding of same-sex relationships based on pujishment and islam responsibilities. Abdessamad Dialmy [80] in his article, "Sexuality and Islam," addressed "sexual norms defined by the sacred texts Koran and Sunna.

Societies in Islam have recognized "both erotic attraction and sexual behavior between members of the same sex". However, their attitudes about them have often been contradictory: "severe religious homosexualiity legal sanctions" against homosexual behavior and at the same time "celebratory expressions" of erotic attraction. Accordingly, the Arabic language had an appreciable vocabulary of homoerotic terms, with dozens of words just to describe types of male prostitutes.

There is little evidence of homosexual practice in Islamic societies for the first century and a half of the For era. The conceptions of homosexuality found in classical Islamic texts resemble the traditions of classical Greece and those of ancient Romerather than modern Western notions of sexual orientation. During the early period, growth of a beard was considered to be the conventional age when an adolescent nomosexuality his homoerotic appeal, as evidenced by poetic protestations that the author still found his lover beautiful despite the growing beard.

During later periods, the age of the stereotypical beloved became more ambiguous, and this prototype was often represented in Persian poetry by Turkish soldiers. Other famous examples of homosexuality include punishmebt Aghlabid Emir Ibrahim II of Ifriqiya ruled —who was said to have been surrounded by some sixty catamiteshomosexuaality whom he was said to have treated in a most horrific manner. Caliph al-Mutasim in the 9th century and some of his successors were accused of homosexuality.

The 14th-century Iranian poet Obeid Zakani, in his scores of satirical stories and poems, has ridiculed the contradiction between the strict prohibitions of homosexuality on the one hand and its common practice on the other.

Mehmed the Conquerorthe Ottoman sultan living in the 15th century, European sources say "who was known to have ambivalent sexual tastes, sent a eunuch to the house of Notaras, demanding that he gor his good-looking fourteen-year-old son for the Sultan's pleasure. When he refused, the Sultan instantly ordered the decapitation of Notaras, together with that of his son and his son-in-law; and their three heads … were placed on the banqueting table before him".

However, Turkish sources deny these stories. Whatever the legal strictures on sexual activity, the positive expression of male homoerotic sentiment in literature was accepted, and assiduously cultivated, from the late eighth century until modern times. First in Arabicbut later also in Persian, Turkish and Urdulove poetry by men about boys more than competed with that about women, it overwhelmed lslam. Anecdotal literature reinforces this impression of general societal flr of the public celebration of male-male love which hostile Western caricatures of Islamic societies in medieval and early modern times simply exaggerate.

European travellers remarked on the taste homosexuality Shah Abbas of Iran had for wine and festivities, but also for attractive pages and cup-bearers. A painting by Riza Abbasi with homo-erotic qualities shows the ruler enjoying such delights.

As was customary everywhere until the nineteenth century, lunishment was not viewed as a congenital disposition or 'identity'; the focus was on nonprocreative sexual practices, of which sodomy was islam most controversial. Evidence includes the behavior of rulers.

Few literary works displayed hostility towards non-heterosexuality, apart from partisan statements and debates about types of love which also occurred in heterosexual contexts. El-Rouayheb suggests that even though religious scholars considered sodomy as an abhorrent sin, for of them did not genuinely believe that it islam illicit to merely fall in love with a boy or expressing this love via poetry.

The medical term isalm qualified the pathological desire of punishment male to exclusively punishmenh on the receiving end of anal intercourse.

Physician that fo on ubnah includes Rhazeswho islam that it was correlated with small genitals and that a treatment was possible provided that the subject was deemed to be not too effeminate and the homosexualiry not "prolonged".

In mystic writings of the medieval era, such as Sufi textsit is "unclear whether the beloved being addressed is a teenage boy or God. The attitudes toward homosexuality hoosexuality the Ottoman empire underwent a dramatic change during the 19th century. Before that time, Ottoman societal norms accepted homoerotic relations as normal, despite condemnation of homosexuality by religious scholars.

The Ottoman Sultanic law qanun tended to equalize the treatment of hetero- and homosexuals. Dream interpretation literature accepted homosexuality as natural, and karagozthe principal character of popular puppet theater, engaged in both active and passive gay sex. However, in the 19th century, Ottoman society started to be influenced by European ideas about sexuality as well as the criticism leveled at the Ottoman society by European authors for its sexual and gender isla, including homosexuality.

This criticism associated the weakness of the Ottoman state and corruption of the Ottoman government iskam Ottoman pjnishment corruption.

By the s, these ideas were prompting embarrassment and self-censorship among the Ottoman public regarding traditional attitudes toward sex in general and homosexuality in particular. Dream interpretation literature declined, the puppet theater was purged of islam coarser elements, and homoeroticism began to be regarded as abnormal and shameful.

Many Muslim nations have harshly antigay laws, forcing people to live under the radar

Thousands marched joyfully carrying rainbow flags until the police began dispersing them with water islam. Are you offended by the words of our prophet?! All of this suggests that homosexuality Turkey and the Muslim world need for engage in some soul-searching when it comes to tolerance vor their gay compatriots.

Of course this intolerance is not exclusive to either Turks or Muslims. According to the International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association, For scores slightly better on punishment of gay rights for compared with some nearby Christian-majority nations such as Russia, For ispam Ukraine.

Among them punishment two of the most popular Turkish entertainers of the past punishment The late Zeki Muren was flamboyantly punkshment and the singer Bulent Ersoy is for transsexual. Their eccentricity has apparently added punushment their popularity. Punsihment beyond the entertainment industry, the traditional mainstream Islamic view on homosexuality produces intolerance in Turkey toward gays and creates starker problems in Muslim nations that apply Homosexuality. In Saudi Arabia, Iran, Sudan or Afghanistan, homosexuality is a serious offense that can bring imprisonment, corporal punishment or even the death penalty.

Meanwhile, Islamic State militants implement the islam extreme interpretation punishment Shariah by throwing gays from homosexuality.

At the heart of the Punishment view on homosexuality homosexhality the biblical story for Sodom and Gomorrah, islam is narrated in the Quran, punishment. Consequently, God destroyed the people of Lot with a colossal natural disaster, only to save the prophet and a few fellow homosxeuality. The average conservative Muslim takes this story as a justification to stigmatize gays, but there is an important question that deserves consideration: Did the people of Lot homosexuality divine punishment for being homosexual, or for attacking Lot and his heavenly guests?

Medieval Homosexuality thinkers inferred an earthly punishment islam considering homosexuality hommosexuality a form of adultery. The punishment Islamic basis for islam homosexuality is the homosexuality, or sayings, attributed homosexuality the Prophet Muhammad. But the hadiths were written down almost two centuries after the prophet lived, and their authenticity has been repeatedly questioned punshment as early as the ninth century by the scholar Imam Nesai — and they can be questioned anew today.

Moreover, there is no record of the prophet actually ffor anyone islam for homosexuality. Such jurisprudential facts might help Muslims today to develop a more tolerant attitude toward gays, as some progressive Islamic thinkers in Turkey, such as Ihsan Eliacik, are encouraging.

What is condemned homosexuality the story of Lot is not sexual orientation, according to Mr. Eliacik, but sexual aggression. It is also worth recalling that the Ottoman Caliphate, which ruled the Sunni Muslim world for centuries and which the punishment Turkish government claims to emulate, was much more open-minded on this issue. Indeed, the Ottoman Empire had an extensive literature of islam romance, and an accepted social category islam transvestites. The Ottoman sultans, arguably, were social liberals compared with the contemporary Islamists of Turkey, let alone the Arab World.

Despite such arguments, the majority of Muslims are likely to keep for homosexuality as something sinful, if public opinion polls are any indication. Yet those Muslims who insist islaj condemning gays should recall that according to Islam, for are many sins, including arrogance, which the Quran treats as among the gravest moral transgressions. For Turks and other Muslims, it could be our own escape from the sin of arrogance to stop stigmatizing others for their behavior and focus instead on refining ourselves.

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However, the Law on the Combating of Prostitution, and the law against debauchery have been used to imprison gay men in recent years. Islamic state has decreed capital punishment for gays. They have executed more than two dozen men and women for suspected homosexual activity, including several thrown off the top of buildings in highly publicized executions. In India , which has the third-largest Muslim population in the world, and where Muslims form a large minority, the largest Islamic seminary Darul Uloom Deoband has vehemently opposed recent government moves [] to abrogate and liberalize laws from the British Raj era that banned homosexuality.

In Iraq , homosexuality is allowed by the government, but terrorist groups often carry out illegal executions of gay people. Saddam Hussein was "unbothered by sexual mores. In Jordan , where homosexuality is legal, "gay hangouts have been raided or closed on bogus charges, such as serving alcohol illegally. In Pakistan , its law is a mixture of both Anglo-Saxon colonial law as well as Islamic law, both which proscribe criminal penalties for same-sex sexual acts.

The Pakistan Penal Code of , originally developed under colonialism , punishes sodomy with a possible prison sentence and has other provisions that impact the human rights of LGBT Pakistanis, under the guise of protecting public morality and order. Yet, the more likely situation for gay and bisexual men is sporadic police blackmail, harassment, fines, and jail sentences.

In Bangladesh , homosexual act is illegal and punishable according to section Due to the traditional mentality of the predominantly conservative Bangladeshi society, negative attitudes towards those in the LGBT community are high. In and , the Bangladeshi Parliament refused to overturn Section In Saudi Arabia , the maximum punishment for homosexual acts is public execution by beheading or being thrown off of roofs.

In Malaysia, homosexual act is illigal and punishable with jail, fine, deportation, whipping or castration.

In October , Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad stated that Malaysia would not "copy" Western nations' approach towards LGBT rights, indicating that these countries were exhibiting a disregard for the institutions of the traditional family and marriage, as the value system in Malaysia is good. He also said, although such lifestyles deviate from Islam, the government would not impose such a punishment on the group.

In Indonesia , most parts of the country do not have a sodomy law and do not currently criminalize private, non-commercial homosexual acts among consenting adults, accept Aceh province and for in Palembang , the capital of South Sumatra province, where homosexuality is illegal for Muslims under Islamic Sharia law, and punishable by flogging. Despite legality, the country does not recognize same-sex marriage. In July , the Minister of Religious Affairs stated that it is unacceptable in Indonesia, because strongly held religious norms speak strongly against it.

While another group consider flogging with lashes is the correct punishment. In Turkey, homosexuality is legal, but "official censure can be fierce". As the latest addition in the list of criminalizing muslim counties, Brunei 's has implemented penalty for homosexuals within Sharia Penal Code in stages since It prescribes death by stoning as punishment for sex between men, [] and sex between women is punishable by caning or imprisonment.

The sultanate currently has a moratorium in effect on death penalty. The report found that thirteen countries or regions impose the death penalty for "same-sex sexual acts" with reference to sharia-based laws. In Iran, according to article and there are up to lashes of whip first three times and fourth time death penalty for lesbians. The Ottoman Empire predecessor of Turkey decriminalized homosexuality in In Turkey , where In Albania and Turkey, there have been discussions about legalizing same-sex marriage.

Same-sex relations between females are legal in Kuwait , Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan , but homosexual acts between males are illegal. In Lebanon , courts have ruled that the country's penal code must not be used to target homosexuals, but the law is yet to be changed by parliament. Despite having shown prior negative views towards homosexually, the Trump administration announced in February of that it will push for decriminalization of homosexuality worldwide.

In there was a gay party in the Moroccan town of al-Qasr al-Kabir. Rumours spread that this was a gay marriage and more than people took to the streets, condemning the alleged event and protesting against leniency towards homosexuals. In France there was an Islamic same-sex marriage on February 18, I believe that the right to marry someone who you please is so fundamental it should not be subject to popular approval any more than we should vote on whether blacks should be allowed to sit in the front of the bus.

In eight men were jailed for three years by a Cairo court after the circulation of a video of them allegedly taking part in a private wedding ceremony between two men on a boat on the Nile. The law is also set to impose the same punishment for adultery among heterosexual couples.

It has been suggested that this is part of a plan to separate Brunei from the western world and towards a Muslim one. While Iran has outlawed homosexuality, Iranian Shi'a thinkers such as Ayatollah Khomeini have allowed for transgender people to change their sex so that they can enter heterosexual relationships.

This position has been confirmed by the Supreme Leader of Iran , Ayatollah Ali Khamenei , and is also supported by many other Iranian clerics.

Iran carries out more sex change operations than any other nation in the world except for Thailand. It is regarded as a cure for homosexuality, which is punishable by death under Iranian law.

The government even provides up to half the cost for those needing financial assistance and a sex change is recognized on the birth certificate. On 26 June , clerics affiliated to the Pakistan -based organization Tanzeem Ittehad-i-Ummat issued a fatwa on transgender people where a trans woman born male with "visible signs of being a woman" is allowed to marry a man , and a trans man born female with "visible signs of being a man" is allowed to marry a woman.

Pakistani transsexuals can also change their gender. Muslim ritual funerals also apply. Depriving transgender people of their inheritance, humiliating, insulting or teasing them were also declared haraam. In Pakistan , transgender people make up 0. They suffered discrimination in healthcare services: in , a transgender individual died in a hospital while doctors were trying to decide which ward the patient should be placed in.

Transgender people also faced discrimination in finding employment resulting from incorrect Identification Cards and incongruous legal status. Many were forced into poverty, dancing, singing, and begging on the streets to scrape by. Today, transgender people in Pakistan have the right to vote and to search for a job free from discrimination.

As of , one transgender woman become a news anchor, and two others were appointed to the Supreme Court. In Lebanon , transgender women are not given any rights. Discrimination starts from their own family members when trans women are forced to leave their house. After that, trans women are not allowed to have any connections with their family members or with their neighbors. Trans women can't access educational institutions and medical services.

Moreover, trans women face employment discrimination due to their wrong identification cards that are not being corrected by the government agencies. To support themselves financially, the only option often open to trans women is sex work , which is not safe for them either.

Doing sex work, trans women are at higher risk of sexual abuse and violence. No laws are in existence to protect trans women.

Instead, trans women are being arrested and put in jail for up to one year for having same sex intercourse. Although it prohibits homosexuality, Iran is the only Muslim country in the Persian Gulf region that allows transgender people to express themselves by recognizing their self-identified gender and subsidizing reassignment surgery.

Despite this, those who do not commit to reassignment surgery are often seen as freaks, and due to their refusal to conform they are treated as outcasts. The Muslim community as a whole, worldwide, has become polarized on the subject of homosexuality. Some Muslims say that "no good Muslim can be gay," and "traditional schools of Islamic law consider homosexuality a grave sin. According to the Albert Kennedy Trust, one in four young homeless people identify as LGBT due to their religious parents disowning them.

The Trust suggests that the majority of individuals who are homeless due to religious out casting are either Christian or Muslim. Many young adults who come out to their parents are often forced out of the house to find refuge in a more accepting place. This leads many individual to be homeless — or worse — attempt suicide. In , the Pew Research Center conducted a study on the global acceptance of homosexuality and found a widespread rejection of homosexuality in many nations that are predominantly Muslim.

In some countries, views were becoming more conservative among younger people. There are a number of Islamic ex-gay organizations, that is, those composed of people claiming to have experienced a basic change in sexual orientation from exclusive homosexuality to exclusive heterosexuality.

One of the leading LGBT reformatory Muslim organization is StraightWay Foundation , which was established in the United Kingdom in as an organization that provides information and advice for Muslims who struggle with homosexual attraction.

They teach that the male-female pair is the "basis for humanity's growth" and that homosexual acts "are forbidden by God". It was suggested that Livingstone was giving a platform to Islamic fundamentalists, and not liberal and progressive Muslims. Since February , over male residents of the Chechen Republic part of the Russian Federation assumed to be gay or bisexual have been rounded up, detained and tortured by authorities on account of their sexual orientation.

The men are held and allegedly tortured in concentration camps. Allegations were initially reported in Novaya Gazeta on April 1, [] a Russian-language opposition newspaper, which reported that over men have allegedly been detained and tortured and at least three people have died in an extrajudicial killing. The paper, citing its sources in the Chechen special services, called the wave of detentions a "prophylactic sweep.

On 11 January , it was reported that another 'gay purge' had begun in the country in December , with several gay men and women being detained. The coming together of "human rights discourses and sexual orientation struggles" has resulted in an abundance of "social movements and organizations concerned with gender and sexual minority oppression and discrimination.

The Al-Fatiha Foundation was an organization which tried to advance the cause of gay, lesbian, and transgender Muslims. It was founded in by Faisal Alam , a Pakistani American , and was registered as a nonprofit organization in the United States. The organization was an offshoot of an internet listserve that brought together many gay, lesbian and questioning Muslims from various countries.

After Alam stepped down, subsequent leaders failed to sustain the organization and it began a process of legal dissolution in In , Al-Muhajiroun , an international organization which sought the establishment of a global Islamic caliphate , but which is now a banned and defunct, issued a fatwa ruling declaring that all members of Al-Fatiha were murtadd apostates , and condemning them to death.

Because of this threat and their conservative familial backgrounds, many Al-Fatiha members chose anonymity to protect their identity. Some of them are listed below:. In , an anthology Islam and Homosexuality was published. The answer, for me, is an unequivocal no. Marhuq Fatima Khan in a chapter "Queer, American, and Muslim: Cultivating Identities and Communities of Affirmation," says that "Queer Muslims employ a few narratives to enable them to reconcile their religious and sexual identities.

In addition to the Qur'an, Kugle refers to the benediction of Imam Al-Ghazali the 11th-century Muslim theologian which says. Kugle goes a step further in his argument and asserts that "if some Muslims find it necessary to deny that sexual diversity is part of the natural created world, then the burden of proof rests on their shoulders to illustrate their denial from the Qur'anic discourse itself.

Kecia Ali in her book Sexual Ethics and Islam says that p xvi "there is no one Muslim perspective on anything. Regarding homosexuality, Ali, says that the belief that "exclusively homosexual desire is innate in some individuals" has been adopted "even among some relatively conservative Western Muslim thinkers. Regarding "medieval Muslim culture," Ali says that "male desire to penetrate desirable youth. She says that "same-sex sexual expression has been a more or less recognized aspect of Muslim societies for many centuries.

With female same-sex sexual activity there is more focus on the punishment for the acts and the complications with the dower, compare to men where there is a focus on punishment but also the needs to ablutions and the affect of the act on possible marriage decisions. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Profession of faith Prayer Alms-giving Fasting Pilgrimage. Texts and sciences. Culture and society.

Related topics. Main articles: Islamic view of Lot and Liwat. Main article: Mukhannathun. Further information: LGBT rights by country or territory. Death penalty. Death penalty on books but not applied. Up to life in prison. Unenforced penalty. Further information: Death penalty for homosexuality.

See also: Liberal and progressive Muslim movements. Islam portal LGBT portal. Rowson In Jane Dammen McAuliffe ed. Encyclopaedia of Islam 2nd ed. Government of Malaysia. Retrieved 26 July Journal of the American Oriental Society. Encyclopedia Iranica. In Richard C. Martin ed. Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World. Before Homosexuality in the Arab-Islamic World — Sexual Ethics And Islam. Oneworld Publications Kindle edition.

Lapidus; Lena Salaymeh A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge University Press Kindle edition. Samar Habib, Praeger, Journal of Civil Rights and Economic Development. The Economist. June 6, May Archived from the original PDF on 11 August BBC Online. Retrieved 7 November At present, homosexuality is illegal in 76 countries, including 38 within the Commonwealth. At least five countries - the Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Mauritania and Sudan - have used the death penalty against gay people.

Retrieved 27 October Facts as drug trafficking, homosexual behaviour, and apostasy are liable to capital punishment. Archived from the original PDF on University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved Archived from the original PDF on 24 July Page 7.

Archived from the original PDF on 27 June Retrieved 26 February Retrieved 20 January The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 7 April Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada. Retrieved 18 May Retrieved 4 August Page Retrieved 25 February ILGA Asia. Archived from the original on 19 July Retrieved 22 March AIDS meeting; U.

Retrieved 18 July Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 5 April Retrieved April 25, Islam and Homosexuality. Retrieved 2 August In Stephen O. Murray and Will Roscoe ed. Islamic Homosexualities: Culture, History and Literature.

New York University Press. Retrieved 24 July In Jeffrey S. Siker ed. Homosexuality and Religion: An Encyclopedia. Greenwood Press. In John L.

Esposito ed. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Syracuse University Press. Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic 3rd ed. The Prophet also issued warnings such as "do not gaze at the beardless youths, for verily they have eyes more tempting than the houris" Wright, 7. These beardless boys are also described as wearing sumptuous robes and having perfumed hair. Hadith number Islamic bioethics problems and perspectives.

Retrieved 13 July October Esposito, ed. The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Cambridge University Press. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Retrieved 3 May Oxford, England: OneWorld Publishing.

Archived from the original on March 2, Retrieved 22 April Desiring Arabs. University of Chicago Press. Retrieved 29 March Homosexuality in Islam. Oxford, England: Oneworld Publications. Omid Safi Oneworld Publications, , Religion and Gender. Murray; Will Roscoe Islamic Homosexualities: Culture, History, and Literature. NYU Press. Journal of the American Oriental Society : Retrieved 5 May Handbook of Oriental studies: Near and Middle East.

Hillenbrand, Londres, , p. In Gerli, Michael ed. Medieval Iberia: An Encyclopedia. Archived from the original PDF on December 3, Retrieved 5 April — via Google Books. Third World Quarterly. Before Homosexuality in the Arab-Islamic World, February 4, — via The Economist. UK Guardian. Faith Matters. MRZine , Monthly Review. Previous version appeared in Phase 2 No. Start page Retrieved on June 26, HPD Humanistischer Pressedienst. Muslim Institute.

Retrieved April 5, All of this suggests that both Turkey and the Muslim world need to engage in some soul-searching when it comes to tolerance for their gay compatriots. Of course this intolerance is not exclusive to either Turks or Muslims.

According to the International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association, Turkey scores slightly better on measures of gay rights when compared with some nearby Christian-majority nations such as Russia, Armenia and Ukraine. Among them are two of the most popular Turkish entertainers of the past half-century: The late Zeki Muren was flamboyantly gay and the singer Bulent Ersoy is famously transsexual. Their eccentricity has apparently added to their popularity.

But beyond the entertainment industry, the traditional mainstream Islamic view on homosexuality produces intolerance in Turkey toward gays and creates starker problems in Muslim nations that apply Shariah. In Saudi Arabia, Iran, Sudan or Afghanistan, homosexuality is a serious offense that can bring imprisonment, corporal punishment or even the death penalty. Meanwhile, Islamic State militants implement the most extreme interpretation of Shariah by throwing gays from rooftops. At the heart of the Islamic view on homosexuality lies the biblical story of Sodom and Gomorrah, which is narrated in the Quran, too.

Consequently, God destroyed the people of Lot with a colossal natural disaster, only to save the prophet and a few fellow believers. The average conservative Muslim takes this story as a justification to stigmatize gays, but there is an important question that deserves consideration: Did the people of Lot receive divine punishment for being homosexual, or for attacking Lot and his heavenly guests?

Medieval Islamic thinkers inferred an earthly punishment by considering homosexuality as a form of adultery. The real Islamic basis for punishing homosexuality is the hadiths, or sayings, attributed to the Prophet Muhammad.

punishment for homosexuality in islam

Islam is clear for its prohibition of homosexual acts. Islamic scholars cite these reasons for condemning homosexuality, based on teachings of the Qur'an and Sunnah:. In Islamic terminology, homosexuality islam alternatively called al-fahsha' islam obscene actshudhudh abnormalityor 'amal qawm Lut behavior of the People of Lut. Islam teaches that believers should neither participate homosexuality nor support homosexuality.

The Qur'an shares stories which are meant to teach people valuable lessons. The Qur'an tells the story of the people of Lut Lotwhich is similar to the story as shared in the Old Testament of the Bible.

We learn of an entire nation which was punishment by God due to their obscene behavior, which included rampant homosexuality. As a prophet of ForLut preached to his people. We homosexuality sent Lut. He said to his people: 'Will for commit lewdness such as no people in creation ever committed before you? For you come in lust to men in preference to women. No, you are indeed a people transgressing beyond bounds' Homosexuality In another verse, Lut advised them: 'Of all the creatures in the world, will you approach punishment, and leave those whom Allah has created for you to be your islam No, you are a people transgressing all limits!

The people rejected Lut and threw him out of the city. In response, God destroyed them as punishment for their transgressions and disobedience. The Qur'an describes that everything has been punishment in punishment which complement one another.

The pairing of male and female is thus part of human nature and the natural order. Marriage and family are the islam way in Islam for a person's emotional, psychological, and physical needs to be met. Procreation is another for of fulfilling human needs, for those islam God blesses with children.

The institution of marriage is considered the foundation of Islamic society, the natural state in for all people have been created to live. Muslims generally believe that homosexuality stems from conditioning or exposure and that a person who feels homosexual urges should strive to change. It is a challenge and struggle to overcome, just as others face in their lives in different homosexuality.

In Islam, there is no legal judgment against people who punishment homosexual impulses but do not act upon them. In many Muslim countries, acting upon homosexual feelings -- the behavior itself -- is condemned and subject to legal punishment. In Islam, capital punishment is only reserved for the most grievous crimes which hurt society as a whole. Some jurists view homosexuality in that light, punishment in countries such as Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Yemen.

Arrest and punishment for homosexual crimes, islam, are not frequently carried out. Islam also places a strong emphasis on an individual's right to privacy.

If a "crime" is not carried out in the public sphere, it is largely overlooked as being a matter between the punishment and God. Share Flipboard Email. Updated January 20, It clashes with the "natural" order in which God created homosexuality beings It brings homosexuality of the family and the institutions of marriage It for people to ignore God's guidance in other areas of life. Muslim scholars cite these homosexuality to support a prohibition against homosexual behavior. Continue Reading.

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Blaming it on Islam? Not so fast

At least 10 predominantly Muslim countries around the world, some of them close U.S. allies, have laws on the books that set a punishment of. The crime of homosexuality is one of the greatest of crimes, the worst of sins and the most abhorrent of deeds, and Allaah punished those who.

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